Sikh History

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Gurdwara Nanak Piao is a historic Gurdwara located in north Delhi in India. This Gurdwara sahib is dedicated to the first Sikh Guru, Sri Guru Nanak Dev. Gurdwara Nanak Piao was built at the site, in the garden where Guru Nanak Dev camped when he visited Delhi in 1505 during the reign of Sultan Sikander Shah Lodhi. It is situated on Rana Pratap Road (also known as Grand Trunk Road or GT Road). It is said that people flocked to the revered prophet and offered him and Bhai Mardana precious gifts and offerings. Guru Nanak used to distribute all these offerings to the poor and needy. Besides this, he used to offer food and water to the hungry and thirsty, hence the name of the shrine. The word "Piao" mean to "offer liquid to drink" and refers to the offering of water to all the thirsty who visited this shrine.

Even today, the well used by the Guru is preserved and one
can still see the well from which Guru Nanak served water at the shrine. Consequently, over time Gurdwara Nanak Piao attained a status of a holy and revered historical shrine. Guru Nanak was an apostle of peace, brotherhood, non-violence and amity. His sermons created very uplifting and healthy impact on the people who bowed before him as respect for his spiritual guidance. The garden surrounding the Gurdwara became a place of pilgrimage for the people from all over Delhi. This is where they received the message of spiritual deliverance.

A story goes that during his stay in Delhi, rumours spread that Guru Nanak by the grace of God had revived a dead elephant. Emperor Sikander Shah Lodhi came to know about this holy man who had won the admiration of all the Hindu and Muslim divines of Delhi and had brought a dead elephant to life. It is said that when one of his favourite royal elephants died, he sent for the Guru and requested him to revive his elephant too.

But the Guru refused to oblige him. Consequently the Guru was immediately imprisoned. In the prison his deep compassion for the suffering of prisoners had a great moral and spiritual influence on the prison officials. They informed the Emperor that Guru Nanak was not a worshiper of idols and that as a saint he was greatly respected by all the people including Hindus and Muslims.

A strange thing happened while Guru Nanak was imprisoned, a great earthquake shook Delhi on July 3, 1505. According to a chronicler, “the mountains were overturned and lofty edifices were dashed to the ground”. The living thought the day of judgement had come and that the Yaum al-Qiyĝmah, as the Muslim's call the Day of Resurrection, had come. Prone to superstition, many thought this was because the new Faqir Nanak, who had been imprisoned by the Emperor, had cursed the King and the empire. This or some other equally strong influence like the intervention of the Chisti Sufi saints changed the mind of the Emperor and he ordered the release of the Guru Nanak and at Guru Nanak's request many other prisoners were released as well.


When Guru Tegh Bahadur was beheaded in Chandni Chowk, the lamenting and wailing crowd surged forward to have a closer look at the martyred prophet, a man named Bhai Jaita, rushed out of the crowd, and with lightning flash picked up the head of the Guru and disappeared into the grief stricken crowd.

The clouds darkened and a strom began to rage. Lakhi Shah, a Sikh devotee and government contractor came rushing with a convoy of horse and bullocks driven by his eight sons through the Chandni Chowk under cover of the darkness created by the dark clouds, they carried away the body of Guru Tegh Bahadur to their residence, the present site of Rakab Ganj Gurdwara opposite Parliament building. They reverently placed the body of the Guru as pre-planned on a pile of sandalwood and set fire to the whole house. They put the remains of the Guru in an urn and buried it on the very spot where the body was cremated. The head of the Guru was taken by his disciple Bhai Jaita to Anandpur where Guru Gobind Singh cremated it near the place where the Guru used to meditate in a Cell. That place is also known as Sis Ganj of Anandpur.

Hermitage of Baba Buddha and Self-Dedication of Baba Gurditta

When Guru Hargobind was unexpectedly imprisoned during his visit to Delhi and sent to Gwalior prison, Baba Buddha the High Priest looked after the Guru's horses and camps. The place where the sage stayed is now known as Buddhapind and a festival is held there in August-September to celebrate the day of the Guru's return from the prison.
Bhai Gurditta was the great grandson of Baba Buddha and the High Priest of Guru Tegh Bahadur's durbar. The Guru had sent him to Anandpur to bestow the articles of spiritual Regalia to his son Guru Gobind Singh. On his way back, Bhai Gurditta had just entered Delhi when he heard the heart rending cried of the people who were witnessing the martyrdom of his Master. Unable to bear the separation of the Master whom he had served with intense devotion, he went to Baba Buddha's hermitage, sat in samadhi and discarded his body, to remain for ever in eternal communion with his Guru and God.


Guru Hari Krishan, the boy prophet, became the eighth Guru of the Sikhs on October 6, 1661 A.D. During the short period of his pontificate he guided the Sikh community with great tact and wisdom in the face of threatening challenges. He sent missionaries to the farthest outposts of the country and inspired the seekers who came to him with eternal truth and the highest mystical and siritual experiences. His father Guru Hari Rai had disowned his elder brother, Ram Rai because he went out of the way to please the Mughal Emperor, more so by showing magical miracles to entertain him.

When Guru Hari Krishan came to Delhi, he was entertained as a royal guest by Mirza Raja Jai Singh in his Haveli (Palace), the present site of Gurdwara Bangla Sahib. This palace was built on the model of existing palace of Raja Jai Singh in Jaipur. Raja Jai Singh's Chief Rani looked after Mata Sulakhani, the mother of the Guru, and was greatly impressed by the spiritual powers of the child-prophet.
Avoiding invitations and meetings with Emperor Aurangzeb he refused to show any occult miracles of the type Ram Rai had shown in the Mughal Court and got many rewards. During this period Small pox and cholera had broken in Delhi and Guru Hari Krishan moved among the poorest Hindu and Muslim localities helping the suffering and the sick. Hindus and Muslims of Delhi were deeply moved by his compassion and human concern for all those who suffered from poverty and diseases. Every day Guru Hari Krishan distributed sanctified water to the sick and ailing people which had a miraculous healing effect on their mind, body and soul. To this day water sanctified by the Word of God, sung all day in this temple, is distributed to those seeking faith healing. Many seriously ill persons are reported to have been healed. Raja Jai Singh dedicated his palace to his sacred memory and since his death it has been the place of worship of the Sikhs and is known as Bangla Sahib.


The great Sikh General, Jathedar Akali Phoola Singh, was born in 1761. His father Ishar Singh was fatally wounded during the great massacre of Sikhs (Wada Ghalughara) in 1762. Before his death he charged Bhai Narain Singh of Misl Shaheedan with the responsibility of raising his infant son.

Akali Ji, by the age of ten, could recite Nitnem and other Gurbani hymns. At Anandpur Sahib, he always kept himself busy doing sewa or reading Gurbani, and he became very popular with the sangat. Because of his scholastic attitude and commitment to Panthic welfare, he was made the leader (Jathedar) of the Misl after the death of Bhai Narain Singh. In 1800, he came to Amritsar and made the Mahants improve the management of the Gurdwaras. The major credit for extending the boundaries of the Sikh Raj goes to Akali Ji, the legendary general of the Sikhs.

Respected by Maharaja Ranjeet Singh

In 1802, Maharaja Ranjeet Singh sent his army to take over Amritsar and annex it to his kingdom. On the advice of Akali Phoola Singh, the Maharaja agreed to give an estate to the Bhangi Misl, then ruling Amritsar. He also ordered the army not to loot the inhabitants of the city.

In 1807, Phoola Singh was, for the first time, involved in a major battle against the Nawab of Kasoor, who had the protection of a strong fort. The Sikhs fought bravely and were finally able to demolish a section of the wall. The Nawab was arrested. The Sikhs took pity on him and allotted him an estate near the Satlej river. The bravery of Akali Ji during the battle very much impressed the Maharaja.

In 1808, a British representative was sent to Amritsar for talks for developing better relations between the two governments. A Muslim platoon with the British emissary organized a procession to celebrate their festival chanting loud slogans. When passing near the Akal Takhat, they were advised not to create noise, because it disturbed the Sikh congregation. However, the leaders of the procession insulted the Sikhs instead of listening to their suggestion. On hearing this disturbing news, Akali Ji himself went to settle the matter with the British platoon. The soldiers apologized and behaved respectfully in the future. No more noisy processions were taken near the Gurdwara again.

Loss of Faith in the Maharaja

The internal political policy pursued by Maharaja Ranjeet Singh went against Sikh interests. Major points of differences were that the Maharaja had:

1. Delegated too much authority of the government to Dogras who were insincere and disloyal to the Sikhs.

2. Appointed relatives of his cronies to important posts instead of selecting competent persons.

3. Developed misunderstanding with his sons by listening to the misinformation given by the Dogras.

Note: Later, it was found that Akali Ji was right and justified in asking the Maharaja not to place all his confidence in the Dogras alone. The Dogras had a secret understanding with the British, who had already taken control over much of India. The Dogras caused the downfall of the Sikh Raj. They were made the rajas of Kashmir as a reward for helping the British infiltrate the Sikh raj. The Dogras also informed the Kabul regime about the Sikh army and they planned the murder of the hero of the Sikh raj, Sardar Hari Singh Nalwa, who was considered a terror by the Afghans and Pathans.

When Akali Phoola Singh Ji went to discuss domestic policies of the government with Maharaja Ranjeet Singh, the Dogras did not allow the meeting to take place. Akali Ji forced his entry into the palace and was warmly received by the Maharaja. Showing his hospitality, the Maharaja offered Akali Ji a splendid meal. Akali Ji declined his offer stating that unless the Maharaja changed his policies, and realized his own entrapment by the Dogras, this was to be their last meeting. After delivering this message to the Maharaja, Akali Ji left for Anandpur Sahib.

The Prince of Jind state (Jind was then part of the British Raj, now a part of the Haryana state of India.) developed differences with the British raj. He moved to Anandpur Sahib and took protection under Akali Ji. The British desired the Prince to be handed over to them. They approached the Maharaja when Akali Ji refused to surrender him to them. The Dogras misinformed and misguided the Maharaja and accused Akali Ji of creating enmity between the British and the Sikh raj. The army at Phillaur was, therefore, instructed to arrest Akali Phoola Singh. The army, however, declined to obey the Maharaja recognizing that Akali Ji was the holiest man amongst the Sikhs.

The British also tried to capture Akali Ji by ordering the Nawab of Malerkotla and Raja Jaswant to attack Anandpur Sahib and arrest Akali Ji along with the Prince of Jind. Both of them knew of Phoola Singh’s goodness and greatness. They also endorsed his stand and refused to cooperate with the British. Finally, Maharaja Ranjeet Singh thought of another plan to get Akali Ji on his side. He sent Baba Sahib Singh Bedi, a close friend of Akali Phoola Singh, to escort him with honor to Amritsar where a spectacular welcome was arranged by the Maharaja. The two were finally reconciled. Unfortunately, the Maharaja did not take advantage of his advice to keep the Dogras away from the helm of administration.

Protector of the Sikh Faith

Some administrators of the Kashmir area broke their agreement. Akali Phoola Singh and General Hari Singh were sent to punish them. In 1816, Akali Ji lead his forces against the rebels in the west and south of Punjab, including the Nawab of Multan who had not paid his taxes. In 1817, Phoola Singh was sent to Hazara to recover the taxes. The administrator paid his dues and was, therefore, allowed to continue in his position by Akali Ji.

The Nawab of Multan again declined to pay his taxes to the state. When the army was sent to collect the dues, he defeated the Lahore army. The Maharaja then sent his son with a strong force who pushed the Nawab into the fort, but could not achieve his mission. At last, the Maharaja came to Amritsar and humbly requested Akali Phoola Singh to help the Khalsa Panth. Akali Ji angrily asked: “O supporter of the disloyal Dogras, why did you not tell me earlier?” Akali Ji took his men to Multan. They demolished the wall of the fort. A bloody hand to hand battle followed. The brave Nawab, his five sons and 12,000 soldiers lost their lives in the battle. Akali Ji was wounded. On his return to Amritsar, Akali Ji was honored and given the title “Protector of the Sikh Faith.”

Battles for Peshawar

In 1818, the Maharaja himself led the expedition to bring the rebellious Pathans under control. A pontoon bridge was constructed across the river Attock and a small Jatha was sent to assess the situation, but it was attacked. This enraged the Maharaja. He sent Akali Phoola Singh and general Hari Singh Nalwa against the rebels. As soon as the Sikh army was within firing range, they were showered with a rain of bullets. Akali Ji ordered a tactical retreat. This made the rebels come out of their bunkers to follow the retreating Sikhs and push them out of their area. When the enemy was in the open battlefield, Akali Ji ordered a severe attack and then encircled them. Their commander Feroze Khan accepted his defeat and requested the Sikhs to end the battle.

The next target of the Sikh army was to retrieve the control of Peshawar. The rebels decided to obstruct their path to the city. When Akali Ji was informed about this he immediately attacked them before they could gather and organize a coordinated resistance to his advance to Peshawar. This strategy proved useful. The Ghazis (Muslim fighters) did not dare to face the Sikhs and ran for their lives. The road was left open for the Sikhs to proceed to the city where they raised their flag on the fort. After the Sikhs took control of Peshawar, Yar Mohammed Khan sent gifts to Maharaja Ranjeet Singh to express his loyalty. The Maharaja accepted the gifts and made him the Governor of Peshawar. But Khan, too, proved disloyal to the Sikh raj.

Battles for Kashmir

In 1819 Akali Ji was deputed to discipline the ruler of Kashmir who had broken the agreement made with the Maharaja. Unable to proceed through the Pass protected by the army, the Sikhs were instructed to follow footpaths through hilly terrain. By this tactical move they took over all the outer defense posts without much difficulty. After heavy fighting, they captured the strong fort as well.

The Sikh army was unable to make further progress, as the route to Pir Panchal Pass was blocked by the Pathans. The Pathans, occupying the sides of the path, rained bullets on the Sikh army. Akali Ji directed his soldiers to get on the mountains, instead of moving through the Pass. The Sikhs fought the Pathans hand-to-hand and continued their journey through the Pass.

The next battle took place with Jabar Khan, who had built a strong army with thousands of Afghans. Diwan Chand ordered the Sikh army to open gun fire on Afghan positions, but it did little harm to them. He then directed his men to advance their guns to get closer to the defenses for effective firing. As soon as the Sikhs stopped firing in order to move their guns, the Afghans came out of their bunkers and attacked them, capturing several Sikh guns.

Finding the Afghans in the open battlefield, Akali Ji responded with a lightning attack by his men, who were considered the best swordsmen. Jabar Khan was wounded and he fled. The Khalsa won the battle and took control of the Kashmir state.

Defeating Kabul Forces

In 1823, Mohammed Azim Khan, the ruler of Kabul, made plans to take over Peshawar. Yar Mohd Khan, the Governor of Peshawar, appointed by Maharaja Ranjeet Singh was his brother. He agreed to help the Kabul regime by withdrawing from the city and leaving it unoccupied. The Khan’s army came and occupied the city without firing a single bullet. Local administrators and communities were instigated to rebel against the Sikh raj. They occupied all the routes to Peshawar making it very dangerous for the Sikh army to go there.

When this news reached Lahore, the Maharaja called General Hari Singh Nalwa and sought his advice. He suggested that Akali Phoola Singh must join him to recover the state from Khan. Nalwa immediately left for Peshawar, with the Maharaja and Akali Ji following him. When they reached Attock, they found that the pontoon bridge had been destroyed to stop the Sikhs from crossing the river and helping Nalwa.

General Nalwa and his forces were engaged in a bloody battle on the western side of the river while the Maharaja and the main Sikh army were delayed on the eastern bank. Hearing the fight across the river, the Sikhs became more worried and distressed at their situation. A messenger, who swam across the river, informed Akali Phoola Singh and the Maharaja that unless Nalwa and his soldiers received help, he would most likely lose the battle. Hearing this, Akali Phoola Singh got on his horse and crossed the river followed by the Maharaja and the rest of the forces. The news of the arrival of the Maharaja demoralized the opponents and they lost all hope of winning the battle. They ran to save their lives and took shelter behind their second defense line, Nawshehra fort, to prepare a strong defense.

After reorganizing their forces, the Sikhs decided to move forward to take over the fort. Having said their prayers, the Jathas started marching, when a scout brought the news that a new army of 10,000 men with forty guns had arrived to support the rebels. The Maharaja wanted to wait for their own guns to arrive but Akali Ji said, “The Khalsa has started its march after prayer, now no one can stop them!”

When the Sikh army was within their range, the Ghazis opened fire on the Sikhs. Akali Ji ordered them to move forward suddenly and engage them in hand to hand combat, an art in which no army could match the Khalsa. Bullets were coming from all sides, but Akali Ji was moving forward with his men. His horse was killed by a bullet. He immediately boarded an elephant to continue his advance on the Ghazis. Watching the daring deeds of the Akali platoons, the Maharaja could not resist joining them. Meanwhile the Akali men had reached the firing lines and started fighting with their swords. The Afghans were no match for the quick swords of the Sikhs. Fresh Sikh army and gunmen also reached the battlefield by that time and the Sikhs claimed another victory.

The Sikh Nation Bereaved

Unfortunately, the Sikhs sustained a grievous wound: the death of Akali Phoola Singh. A Pathan, hiding behind a boulder, shot Akali Ji from close range as he was pressing the Pathans to retreat.

Thus, the Sikhs lost their great General, a true Sikh. He was a fearless and skilled commander. He maintained the Sant-Sipahi (Saint-Soldier) tradition of the Khalsa. Akali Phoola Singh Ji remains a role model for all Sikhs.



Bhai Haqiqat Rai was born at Sialkot in 1724 A.D. His father was Bhai Bhag Mall Khatri. His maternal grandparents were Sikhs and he was married at a young age to Durgi the daughter of Sardar Kishan Singh. Bhai Haqiqat Rai became a Sikh early in his life due to influence of his mother. During Mughal rule, children used to go to mosques to study Persian from Maulvis (Muslim priests). Bhai Haqiqat Rai was also learning Persian from a maulvi. He was the only Hindu while all his other class-mates were Muslims. One day, the maulvi had gone out. Bhai Haqiqat Rai-had a quarrel with a boy. In order to tease Bhai Haqiqat Rai, he called bad names to mother goddess. In anger, Bhai Haqiqat Rai called name to Bibi Fatima in retaliation. When the Muslim boys heard him calling name, all of them gave him a sound thrashing. He returned home weeping.

In the evening, the Muslim boys got together, went to the maulvi and said, "Today, when we said to Haqiqat Rai that their gods and goddesses are made of clay and all are false, he said Bibi Fatima to be false and called her names." The maulvi said, "Did that infidel call Bibi Fatima names ?" The boys exaggerated the event and said, "When we said to him that we would complain to the maulvi, he replied that he was not afraid of him. His maternal uncles and inlaws are Sikhs. He will get the maulvi eliminated through them." The maulvi was greatly enraged on hearing this. He said to the boys, "Call that infidel and bring him to me."

At the message from the boys, Bhai Haqiqat Rai and his father went to the maulvi. As soon as they arrived, the maulvi caught hold of Bhai Haqiqat Rai and started beating him The maulvi beat him to unconsciousness but his anger did not subside. He arrested Bhai Haqiqat Rai and sent him to Amir Beg, the administrator of Sialkot. The next day the qazi said to Bhai Haqiqat Rai in the court, "You have hurt the feelings of believers by calling names to Bibi Fatima for which you should be given severe punishment. For this sin you can be burnt alive after pouring oil on you. you can be torn apart alive from dogs. But your sin may be pardoned if you embrace Islam." Bhai Haqiqat Rai refused to become a Muslim. By order of Amir Beg, Bhai Haqiqat Rai was hanged feet up from a tree and beaten but he did not agree to embrace Islam.

Amir Beg sent Bhai Haqiqat Rai to Zakria Khan, the Governor of Lahore. Mother Goran said to Bhai Haqiqat Rai, "Son ! No doubt I shall lose a son by your death but if you give up your faith I shall be called the mother of a deserter and faithless son. I pray to God to bestow on you the will to keep your faith even if you have to sacrifice your life." When Bhai Haqiqat Rai did not agree to embrace Islam even after further torture, he was martyred by the orders of the Governor in January, 1735 A.D.



Without any doubt, Sikh women had played an equal part in the struggle to keep alive the Khalsa ideals and beliefs. Sikh women worked as a silent majority in the background and sometimes as in the case of Mai Bhago exceeded the Khalsa men in warfare. But the most important part of Khalsa women was to raise the Khalsa children who kept the Khalsa alive. In Punjabi society, most often children hear stories by their grandmother, mother, aunts, etc. This builds up their character. Chhote Sahibzade, ( younger sons of Guru Gobind Singh) were raised on the stories of sacrifices of their great grandfather Guru Arjan Dev ji, their grandfather Guru Tegh Bahadur by their grandmother Mata Gujri ji(mother of Guru Gobind Singh ji, Tenth guru). When their turn came they happily sacrificed their lives, eventhough they were only 7 and 9 years old. This alone was the most amazing, glorious, sad and defining moment of the future of Sikhs. Seven and Nine years old were following the Will of God as dictated by Guru Nanak dev ji. After this incident, Sikh women, men, children put their whole effort to save their ideals and beliefs of Guru Nanak. Mughals had two point of administration in Punjab, Sarhind and Lahore. Mughals who ruled from Delhi appointed two governors at Sarhind and Lahore, under these governors there were many Nawabs, like Malerkotla, Faridkot, Bahawalpur, etc,. Under the Nawabs there were many Parganahs i.e. Zamindars, or landlords who would hold many villages as their land, on these villages farmers, ironsmith, carpenters, etc work and were taxed 67% of their income.

In 1748 A.D. Mughals appointed Mir Mannu as Governor (Subedar) of Lahore and also as a Nawab of Multan. Mir Mannu in order to pacify Hindus appointed a Khatri Hindu of Lahore named Kaura Mall as his Diwan or minister. Then he ordered 30,000+ army of Mughals at Lahore to finish Sikhs. Mughal Army swept the countryside and killed any Sikhs they found. Thousands Women, Men and Children were arrested and brought to Lahore. At that time Sikh population was so small that it affected their numbers. A decade earlier, when similar thing had happened (governor had decided to kill all Sikhs) At that point people thought that all Sikhs are finished, but Bhai Gharjha Singh and Bhai Bota Singh came out of hiding and fought with Mughals, just to show them that Sikhs were far from finished.

Mir Mannu started deploying his terror tactics. First of all, he ordered that all Sikh women in Jails to be provided with specially made to be three times heavy (1 1/4 Mann) a flour grinding instrument named Chakki. Sikh woman hapily would sing the Shabads of Nanak and grind flour whole day but not accepting conversion to Islam as the condition for their freeddom. Then Mir Mannu ordered that all Infant Sikhs who were with their mothers at the jail above to be killed right away, only those were to be spared who accept Islam as their new religion. 300 or so Infant Sikhs were killed by Mughals and their dead bodies given back to their Khalsa mother, not even single mother embraced Islam. The atrocities committed on the Sikh women by the upholders of "Islam" were so great that in 1750 A.d. Chief of Buddha Dal, Kapur Singh Virk and his 500 or so Khalsa attacked Lahore in disguise of a Sufi Saints to kill Mir Mannu but he escaped. In 1753 A.D. Mir Mannu died a very horrible death after suffering in bed for a whole month. In 1753 A.D. Kapur Singh Virk attacked Lahore again and this time he was able to free all the prisoners at these jails. The sacrifice of these Khalsa women was so great that it became a part of Daily Ardaas in 1760's. Even today Sikhs everyday pay homage to the "Singhnian jinna ne sawa sawa mann de pisne peese, bachiye de tota galean vich pavaye, par Dharm na haariya" Sikh Women who happily grinded 60 kg Chakki, had to put garlands of the dead bodies of their children around their necks but did not let pass the ideals of Nanak. Salute to Sikh Women!! Our pride and our inspiration.



Sardar Subeg Singh was an influential zamindar of Jambar, in the district of Lahore. He was also a government contractor. He was great scholar of Persian, a wise and upright man. He proved useful to Zakriya Khan on a number of occasions. For many years the Mughal government pursued a policy of persecuting the Sikhs. It was determined to root them out completely. Thousands and thousands were murdered in cold blood. But the Sikhs just continued to grow. They never thought of giving up their faith to save their lives. The martyrdom of persons like Bhai Taru Singh produced a wave of indignation among Sikhs of the Majha. They decided to retaliate. They resolved to take revenge. They began to fall on government treasuries and caravans. Parties coming with chests of revenue meant for Lahore were waylaid and looted. As a result for some years no money from revenue could reach the government treasury. The forces of government tried to punish the offenders. But they were unable to contact them; for the Sikhs did not live in houses or forts. After each attack, they used to run away to their camps in the forests. The story of persecution and revenge went on for some time. The government, at last, felt tired of this method of dealing with rebels. It decided to pacify and conciliate them. Accordingly, in 1733 Zakriya Khan represented his difficulties to the Delhi government. He suggested that a policy of conciliation should be given in a trial. with that end in view, he proposed that a grant be made to the Sikhs and a title be conferred on their leader. The proposal was accepted. The next thing needed was to persuade the Sikhs to agree to the proposal. Zakriya Khan felt that to persuade them would not be an easy task. He turned to Sardar Subeg Singh for help. He said to him, 'If you succeed in bringing them round, you will receive good service to me and my government. It will be remembered, appreciated and duly rewarded.'

Sardar Subeg Singh agreed to do his best. He agreed to meet the Sikhs and try his skill. At that time the Khalsa had assembled at the Akal Takhat, Amritsar. He went there and held discussion with them. He informed them of the offer made by the government. He offered them the title of 'Nawab' for their leader, along with a Jagir of about one lakh rupees. They would not accept the offer. They were about to reject it outright. But Sardar Subeg Singh succeeded in overcoming their objections. Then they accepted the offer. In this way, some sort of peace was made between Mughal government and the Sikhs. Zakriya Khan felt relived a good deal. He appreciated the part played by Sardar Subeg Singh in bringing about the reconciliation. But after some time, the campaign of persecution was started once again. In the heat of that campaign even Sardar Subeg Singh was not spared. He was arrested along with his son, Sardar Shahbaz Singh. This is how it happened. Sardar Subeg Singh had a son named Sardar Shahbaz Singh. He used to read in a Muhammadan school under a qazi. The boy was usually handsome, bright and promising. The qazi took a fancy to him. He wished to convert him to Islam. He wanted to marry his daughter to him. The qazi tried his utmost. He used all his skills. But Sardar Shahbaz Singh was firm in his faith. Neither threats nor tempting offers could make him change his resolve. Because of this, the qazi's fondness for the bright, handsome boy diminished. He became determined to finish him. He reported unfavorably to the government against him. He said, 'The boy has used disrespectful words against his prophet. He has said foul thing against Islam. This kafir deserves no mercy. He deserves death.'

On the basis of this report, Sardar Shahbaz Singh was arrested and taken to Lahore. He was to stand trial before the governor. At the same time, his father, Sardar Subeg Singh, was also arrested and imprisoned. It was said against him that he supplied information to the Sikhs. But Zakriya Khan died before he could see the end of his victims. He was succeeded by his son, Yahiya Khan. This person was more cruel than his father. He had no soft corner in his heart for Sardar Subeg Singh. He took up his case and pursued it to the bitter end. Sardar Subeg Singh was asked to give up his religion or suffer death at the wheel. He refused to give up his religion. Thereupon, he was put on the wheel and turned on it. The pain was sharp and intense. But it did not break his spirit. Then his son, Shahbaz Singh, was told, 'You can save your life by accepting Islam.' He refused to give up his faith. Thereupon, he was bound to the wheel. He was turned on it before his father's eyes. Both bore the torture with great patience. They went on shouting, 'Akal' all the time. At intervals, the wheels were stopped and the two were asked, 'Do you agree to embrace Islam ?' Every time they shook their heads and shouted, 'NO'. The wheels were set in motion again. The two kept on shouting 'Akal' ! 'Akal'. The wheels had sharp knives arranged around them. They went on working mercilessly. The shouts of Akal grew feebler and feebler. Then they ceased altogether. Both left their bodies. They went away to join the ranks of illustration Sikh martyrs.
This occurred in the year 1745.


Bhai Sati Dass was Bhai Mati Dass’s brother. While Bhai Mati Dass was Dewan at Guru’s court, Bhai Sati Dass was a writer cum translator of a high calibre. He was a scholar of Persian language. He used to write in Persian, the utterings of Guru ji which were later translated and written in Gurmukhi script by him.

Bhai Sati Dass was the third and last of the three sikhs who were arrested along with Sri Guru Teg Bahadur ji under the orders of Emperor Aurangzeb. Bhai Mati Dass and Bhai Dayala were done to death before the eyes of Bhai Sati Dass in the most brutal manner when they refused to forsake their religion and firmly spurned the offers of luxurious living in case they agreed to become Muslims.

The most commendable manner in which both his companions laid down their lives inspired Bhai Sati Dass to face the cruel Kazis, with courage, determination and fortitude.

In their effort to instil fear in the heart of Sri Guru Teg Bahadur Sahib, Bhai Sati Dass was brought out in the open at Chandni Chowk, with hands and legs bounded with iron shackles.

The spectators were guessing about the method to be employed for Sati Dass’s execution, when they watched in disbelief Bhai ji being wrapped in cotton.

Like his predecessors, he too was given the option of saving his life by agreeing to be converted to Islam or face death through torture. Bhai Sati Dass chose the later option, i.e. death through torture since he was not willing to shun his belief in Sikhism to the promised luxurious life in this world and heavens in the next.

Facing his master Sri Guru Teg Bahadur Sahib and while reciting Gurbani and meditating, Bhai Sati Dass who was wrapped in cotton, was set afire and burnt alive under the watchful eyes of his Guru and thousands of spectators. While many of spectators were sobbing, some Muslims were deriving pleasure out of these most barberous acts of execution exployed by their co-religionist rulers. Sri Guru Teg Bahadur Sahib, sitting in the cage showered his blessings on his three Sikhs who had faced brutal executions with unflinching faith and courage. He was immensly pleased with the steadfastness shown by these three Sikhs which was sure to inspire many more Sikhs to emulate the examples of these brave Sikh martyrs.

With the execution of Bhai Sati Dass, the Kazis of Emperor Aurangzeb were disheartened and dismayed. They were expecting that at least one among the three of Guru’s Sikhs would be attracted by lures of luxurious lives out of love for life and agreed to get converted to Islam.

Now they were left with no illusions that they could still persuade the 9th Guru of the Sikhs to adopt Islam, thereby opening the floodgate of conversion of the Hindus of India into Islam.

The disciples of Sikh Gurus will derive inspiration from these three sikh martyrs for all time to come and emulate their examples that no sacrifice is too high for one’s religion and faith


Bhai Mati Das came from a Brahman family of village Kariala in the district of Jhelum (Pakistan). He was the eldest son of Bhai Praga. His grandfather, Mahatma Gautam Das, used to be a deeply religious man of noble, saintly character. He was loved and respected by all, Hindus and Muslims alike. Bhai Praga was a strong stalwart. He had the body and the strength of a giant. He embraced the Sikh faith during Guru Har Gobind's time. He lived the life of a true Sikh. His life was a model for others. He was a prominent saint-soldier of Guru Har Gobind's. He took a hero's part in Guru Har Gobind's battle. He had four sons: Bhai Mati Das, Sati Das, Jati Das and Sakhi Das. Bhai Mati Das was a strongly built as his father, Bhai Praga. He was a dear, devout disciple of Guru Tegh Bahadur. He actually practiced what he believed and professed. Guru Tegh Bahadur made him his diwan. He had to look after the income and expenditure of the Guru's darbar.

Along with the Guru, Bhai Mati Das was also arrested, chained and imprisoned. Under Emperor Aurangzeb's orders, Guru Tegh Bahadur was to be beheaded. The qazis decided to torture and kill the Guru's companions before his eyes. They thought, 'The sight of their suffering and fate might shake his resolve. He might be inclined to save himself be agreeing to our proposal. He might embrace Islam.' So they picked out Bhai Mati Das first of all. He was led out in chains to Chandani Chowk under a heavy guard. He was calm. His face beamed with glory. His gait was a mighty hero's swagger. He walked like a superior among inferiors. His whole bearing showed wonderful self-confidence and self-satisfaction. A large crowd had gathered already in Chandani Chowk. Bhai Mati Das was brought there under a heavy guard. A number of qazis accompanied him. They were apparently saying something to him. But he neither listened nor heard. His mind was wholly fixed on God. He was eager to meet him. No eyes were dry. All observers were filled with reverence and admiration for that tall, strong, calm, and holy man of God. They shuddered at the thought of what was about to happen to him.

The spot fixed for his execution was reached. The guard and the qazis halted, with Bhai Mati Das in their midst. The chief Qazi then said to Bhai Mati Das, 'O brave young man, be wise. This is my last appeal to your common-sense. Why throw away your youthful life and all the joys it may bring ? Accept Islam, and be one of the ruling class. You will have wealth and high position. You will enjoy a life of peace, plenty and pleasure. When you die, prophet Mohammad will receive you among the faithful. You will be led into Paradise. You will live there forever among pleasure of all kinds. If you refuse to accept all these good things of this world and the next, you will be killed with torture. So be wise. Make a wise choice.' Bhai Mati Das replied, 'Why waste your time and breath ? I prefer dying to giving up my faith. Be quick.' The Qazi said, 'All right, let it be as you desire. But have you any last wish which you would like to be fulfilled before you are killed ?'

Bhai Mati Das said, 'Yes. Stand me with my face toward my Guru. In that way I shall behold him to the last moments of my life here.' His wish was granted. He was made to stand with his face toward the Guru. He was tightly tied between two erect flat logs of wood. A saw was placed on his head. Each end of it was held by a fierce looking Pathan. The saw began to move to and fro. Blood began to flow down Bhai Mati Das's face and neck. He did not utter any cry of pain. His face showed no sign of suffering. He was calmly repeating Japji. His body was sawn into two. His devout, brave soul reached the bosom of the kind and loving Father of all. Bhai Mati Das has not died. He still lives in the hearts of those who worship goodness, who admire nobility. He lives in the minds of those who lead a spiritual life. He is the inspiration of those who prefer the soul to the body; who, in order to save their soul, to keep in pure and unsullied, would gladly sacrifice the body and all its pleasures. He is the motivation of those who place duty before self. He is the hero of all who work for noble objectives, not for rewards or recognition.


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Historically speaking, Amrit is Nectar or holy water used to initiate the Sikhs into the order of Khalsa Brotherhood. It is cognate to ambrosia which means water of immortality. It is the elixir of life which bestows immortality. It brings the dead to life and makes human beings immortal.

Literally, Amrit is combination of two words i.e. Am-Mrit. Marit means death-mortality and Am-Mrit means immortal, which never dies. It is called Abe-Hyat in Persian and Nectar in English.

Amrit is prepared by dissolving sugar crystals (Patashas-sugar plums) in water and stirred by Panj Pyaras with two edged Khanda to the accompaniment of scriptural recitation of five sacred Banis. Amrit is supposed to confer eternal life on the neophytes. Any person who undertakes Amrit, is blessed with Naam Daan, humility, sweet nature and dedication to the service of mankind irrespective of caste, color and creed. Amrit turns pacificists into saint-soldiers and prepares them to die for a righteous cause and seek unity with Almighty Lord.

Macauliffe writes,

“The Guru caused his five faithful Sikhs to stand up. He put pure water into an iron vessel and stirred it with a Khanda or two edged sword. He then repeated over it the sacred verses which he appointed for the ceremony , namely, the Japji, the Japji, Guru Amar Das's Anand, and certain swaiyas or quatrains of his own composition.”
-The Sikh Religion by M.A. Macauliffe, V-5, p.94

Through Amrit, the novice is born again, but this time on a spiritual level instead of physical level.

Amrit is not a simple water. It is the Naam of Akal Purakh. It is Sat, Santokh and Vicharo as enshrined in Sri Guru Granth Sahib. It is spiritual food for the soul.

“Amrit Naam Thakar Ka Paiyo Jis Ka Sabhas Aadharo”
Amrit is acquired through guidance and grace of the Guru

Guru Amar Das says,
“The angelic persons and the silent sages search for the Divine Nectar. That Nectar I have obtained from the Guru.” suir nr muin jn AMimRqu Kojdy su AMimRqu gur qy pwieAw ] (918)

On the day of Baisakhi in 1699, Guru Gobind Singh performed the ceremony of preparing and administering Amrit (Khande-di-Pahul) for the first time to the five Sikhs and brought them into the Khalsa Brotherhood at Kesgarh Sahib in Anandpur.

As already quoted, literally, Amrit means deathless, immortal, imperishable, ambrosia or nectar like food. It has the significance of attaining immortality and eternal bliss.

Guru Arjan Dev says,

Amrit (Nectar) is your Name O God, whosoever drinks it, is satiated. AMimRq nwmu suAwmI qyrw jo pIvY iqs hI iqRpqws ] (1208) Ambrosia is the True Name but one can say not its praise. No sooner does the man drink the Name Nectar then he becomes acceptable and gets absorbed in perfect Lord. AMimRqu swcw nwmu hY khxw kCU n jwie ] pIvq hU prvwxu BieAw pUrY sbid smwie ] (33) Nectar is Lord’s Name which I ever meditate. AMimRq hir kw nwau sdw iDAwieAw ] (517)

Guru Amar Das says,

Thus thou shalt abide in thy own home, drink Nectar and get at the peace of Lord’s presence. inj Gir vsih AMimRqu pIvih qw suK lhih mhlu ] (37)
Quaff thou, the immortalising Nectar of the Guru’s Word. gur kw sbdu AMimRq rsu cwKu ] (178) Thus shalt thou taste Nectar relish the Supremely precious commodity. mhw pdwrQu AMimRq rsu cwKu ] (193)

Guru Ram Das says,

“The Guru’s body is drenched with the Nectar of God, the king, and he has sprinkled the Lord’s Nectar on me”. gur AMimRq iBMnI dyhurI AMimRqu burky rwm rwjy ] (449)

Guru Amar Das says,

The mind is brimful with Nectar but the perverse does not know its relish. Just as the deer does not know its own musk and wanders about guiled by doubt. Gr hI mih AMimRqu BrpUru hY mnmuKw swdu n pwieAw ] ijau ksqUrI imrgu n jwxY BRmdw Brim BulwieAw ] (644)

Note for those who rationalise Bhekhdharis
When you are initiated Lord dwells with you and in you in an even more intimate way. There are many Sikhs who have not received Amrit. or who do not grasp the teaching, who are nevertheless doing a wonderful work in the way of the Guru...... We can saw trees with a handsaw or with a powersaw. Either tool will cut trees down…but imagine how much more can be done with a powersaw ! The important thing is to use the power. If you only admire a powersaw instead of using it, the man with the handsaw will get more done. He is at least using the tool that he has........ Sikh Gurus have made the power available but there is nothing to force you to use it....... So many people rationalise and are heard saying that so and so Amrit Dhari is doing so and so. They would be seen giving examples of Bhekhadharis. Just it is a matter to understand that no man can be the criterion by which you judge the validity and importance of Amrit, neither can anyman give the experience of being an Amritdhari, it is only you who need Amrit for earning Guru's Grace. Get initiated and then see the difference. Be a good role model for others.

Amrit Ceremony

Amrit ceremony is initiation of Amrit or Sikh baptism ceremony.

The initiation ceremony started initially in the times of Guru Nanak Dev. In those days such like ceremonies were called as Charan Amrit or Charan Pahul. The water was poured on Guru's toe and then the devotees would drink it and seek blessings of the Guru. The Guru would guide the Sikhs about the Sikh teachings and instruct them to adopt them as a way of life.

Khande Di Pahul (Amrit ceremony) was initiated in the timesof Guru
Gobind Singh when Khalsa was inaugurated at Sri Anandpur Sahib on the day of Baisakhi in 1699.

Khande Di Pahul not only embodies the primary objects of Sikh faith and the promises connected therewith, but also is itself a promise to lead a pure and pious life to unite with Almighty Lord. It is about inward cleansing of the conscience and seeking unity with Supreme Lord through His Grace.


* Through Amrit, the novice is born again, but this time on a spiritual level instead of physical level.
* Wherever the word baptism ceremony is used, it means Amrit initiation ceremony.

Guru and Disciple in one

After this ceremony of initiation of Amrit, the Guru kneeled down before the five Beloveds and begged of them to initiate him into the new order of Khalsa. The Amrit was thus prepared by the Panj Pyaras and after initiation, Gobind Rai became Guru Gobind Singh. He became a Guru and disciple in one at the same time. Bhai Gurdas writes about Amrit Chhakna,

“Take Amrit prepared with double edged sword, so that your life may become blessed. The Khalsa adores the company of holy men, while the bystander is miserable. Hail ! hail ! Guru Gobind Singh who is both Guru and disciple.”
pIvhu pwhul KMfy Dwr, huie jnm suhylw ]
gur sMgiq kInI Kwlsw, mnmuKI duhylw ]
vwh vwh goibMd isMG, Awp y gur cylw ]
(BweI gurdws vwr 41)

The concept of Guru Chela was prevalent throughout the Guru period. Guru Nanak bowed before Guru Angad Dev Ji while anointing him as the second Guru. In fact, it is not bowing before the physical body but it is bowing before the glow of Divine Light.

This transformed the nation of pacifists into Sant Sipahis (Saint soldiers) and armed the Sikh nation to make the supreme sacrifices for upholding liberty, equality and fraternity. It changed the psychology of the Sikh mind. Amrit laid emphasis on the refined inner life through spirituo-ethical living and Five Kakars (Bana) gave Sikhs the ethical, social and temporal thinking from outside. The Panj Pyaras (Five Beloveds) were to prepare and administer the Amrit to the neophytes.

Guru did not deviate from the spirit

All the nine Sikh Gurus from Guru Nanak Dev Ji to Guru Guru Tegh Bahadur Sahib Ji carried on the dipensing of Amrit upon their followers through Charan Pahul Amrit. The Gurus used to prepare baptismal water with the sanctifying touch of their lotus feet. Guru Gobind Singh, the tenth Guru revealed Amrit in 1699 by authorising the five accomplished and authentic Sikhs to give Amrit through baptism. Guru Gobind Singh himself took Amrit from Panj Pyaras, the five elect and conferred Guruship upon Sri Guru Granth Sahib. The new initiation was in letter and spirit the same.

“He changed the formal rites of preparation of Amrit from the initiation by the living Gurus personally to initiation by the Five Elect Khalsa. The basic principle of Amrit remained the same.”
(The meaning of Sikh baptism -Amrit Ki Hai by Bhai Sahib Randhir Singh, p-34).

Amrit chakna

It denotes drinking of nectar. It is another name of Sikh initiation (baptism). It is a ceremony of induction into Khalsa brotherhood. The Amrit is administered in presence of Sri Guru Granth Sahib. The candidates take full bath, wear five Kakars and present themselves before the Guru Granth Sahib for initiation of Amrit.

Five Sikhs representing five beloveds who lead virtuous life and strictly observe the Sikh discipline are chosen to prepare and administer the Amrit. The candidates for baptism are apprised of the Amrit conditions for acceptance before the ceremony is started. They are apprised about the pure and virtuous life they must lead. When the candidates agree to live by the discipline and code of Sikh conduct, the Panj Pyaras start preparing the Amrit.

A Sarb Loh (Iron-steel) cauldron (Bata or bowl) is filled with clean water. Some Patashas (sugar crystals / plums) are poured into the water. The Five Beloveds then sit in Vir Asan (sit on ground with left knee down and the right knee up) around the cauldron.

The mixture is stirred with two edged Khanda and Panj Pyaras recite path of five Banis (Japji Sahib, Jaap Sahib, Sawayae, Chaupai Sahib and Anand Sahib) from Sri Guru Granth Sahib and Dasam Granth with attention and full concentration on the Amrit preparation in Cauldron. The solution thus prepared is called Amrit (nectar of immortality).

The “Sarb Loh Bata” signifies the strength of heart and mind. The chanting of hymns create strong faith and cohesion in the devotees. The Khanda creates a spirit of valor and bravery. The Patashas create strength, courage and grace of sweetness. The Five beloveds create a spirit of unity and democracy. They are mirror of God and the devotees can see through them, their way of life. The evils of caste, color and creed are vanished. The mortal gets both Bani and Bana to attain Truth and be one with the Almighty God.

Five handfuls of Amrit are given for drinking, five handfuls are sprinkled over the hair and another five are sprinkled into the eyes of each of the devotee who offer to be initiated.

Each time the recipient says “Wahe Guru Ji Ka Khalsa, Wahe Guru Ji Ki Fateh”. The devotees chant “Wahe Guru” Mantar. (All such devotees are then asked to drink the Amrit from the same Bata (steel bowl) to shed previous caste, colour and creed. By eliminating the caste differences, a sense of oneness and equality is created in the neophytes who take rebirth in the new order of Khalsa brotherhood.) Prayer is offered at the start and end of Amrit ceremony and Hukam Nama (Divine order) is read from Sri Guru Granth Sahib. After completion of the ceremony, Karah Parsad is distributed. The Sikh now becomes Singh and Khalsa. He enters the corporate life of community called Panth.

It is to be taken into mind that Amrit Chhakna is not the end purpose. It is the start of journey on a right path to attain pure and pious life which is essential to attain God. It is not something external

“Nanak there is but one Name Nectar. Any other Nectar there is not. Nanak, the elixir of the Name is within and is attained by grace of God.”
nwnk AMimRqu eyku hY dUjw AMimRqu nwih ]
nwnk AMimRqu mnY mwih pweIAY gur prswid ]

“The Shabad alone is the essence of the nectar, realizable through the Divine grace.”
AMimRqu eyko sbdu hY nwnk gurmuiK pwieAw ]

The novice must have “lent period” during which he must prepare to go the way of Guru and a voluntary firm decision to change life style and must be desirous and willing to live by the values and virtues of Gurmat . Then and then only, the novice will become worthy to get the gift of Almighty Lord' grace and attain eternal unity.

Khande Di Pahul not only embodies the primary objects of Sikh faith and the promises connected therewith, but also is itself a promise to lead a pure and pious life to unite with Almighty Lord. It is about inward cleansing of the conscience and seeking unity with Supreme Lord through His Grace.

Five deliverances of the Guru for the neophytes from the day of Amrit initiation

1. Janam Nash

2. Freedom from previous family influences and caste effects. Dharam Nash

3. Freedom from previous religious practices and customs. Karam Nash

4. Freedom from rituals, prejudices and past bad deeds. Bharam Nash

5. Freedom from duality and rituals prescribed by previous caste. Sharam Nash

Freedom from shyness and stigma of occupation and disappearance of previous hereditary professional distinctions.

The new entrants are called neophytes

According to Dr Jasbir Singh Ahluwalia,

“Looked from this angle the initiation ceremony of Khande-da-Amrit (whereby a Sikh is admitted into the order of the Khalsa) is of the nature of sacrament, and not ritual in the ordinary sense of term....... The testament of the Shabad and the sacrament of the Amrit are not two different ways; these are two aspects of one and the same thing; partaking of the Amrit is realizing the Shabad in a sacramental form”.
(Sovereignty of the Sikh Doctrine by Jasbir Singh Ahluwalia, p.73-74 and 75)

Mere wearing of five Kakars is of no use if an Amritdhari Sikh does not lead an honest and pious life according to the teachings of ten Gurus and Sri Guru Granth Sahib.

Guru Nanak Dev says,

“When a Hindu comes in the house of a Hindu, he recites Mantras and puts the cotton thread around the neck of the incoming Hindu. Though he puts the sacred thread around his neck, he commits evil actions. His ablutions and washings for purification are of no avail”.
ihMdU kY Gir ihMdU AwvY ]
sUqu jnyaU piV gil pwvY ]
sUqu pwie kry buirAweI ]
nwqw Doqw Qwie n pweI ]

Simply, getting initiation without practicing the proper way of life, is of no use. Every neophyte is required to follow the set principles and Sikh concepts laid by the Gurus. Mere keeping of outer look will amount to show ritualistic tendencies and nothing else. The novice must be clean both from inside and outside.

Guru Arjan Dev says,

“When there is no love with God’s Name, then, these rituals are sinful”.
pRIiq nhI jau nwm isau qau eyaU krm ibkwr ]

About Bhekh

Guru Arjan Dev says,

“Small is man’s service and great is his demand. He does not obtain presence of God but says he has arrived there. He rivals those who are accepted by the beloved Lord. This is but stubbornness of the false fool. He ostensibly wears the religious garb, but does not practice Truth”.
syvw QorI mwgnu bhuqw ]
mhlu n pwvY khqo phuqw ]
jo ipRA mwny iqn kI rIsw ]
kUVy mUrK kI hwTIsw ] rhwau ]
ByK idKwvY scu n kmwvY ]

* “Rehani rahe soi Sikh mera,
oh Sahib mein uss ka chera.”
rhxI rhY soeI isK myrw |
vh Twkuru mYN ays kw cyrw |
(Rehtnama Bhai Desa Singh)

**"Reht bina nah Sikh kahave, Reht bina dar chotan
rhq ibnw nih isMG khwvY |
rhq ibnw dr cotw KwvY |
(Rehtnama Bhai Desa Singh)

Taboos for the Sikhs

1. Not to remove hair from any part of the body.
2. Not to use Tobacco and intoxicants.
3. Not to eat Kutha meat.
4. Not to commit adultery.

A Sikh is not to show disrespect and cut his hair which is God's endowment.

Use of Alcohol, drug, intoxicants and tobacco is strictly prohibited in Sikhism. These addictions drive a person away from realities of life and give birth to mental, moral, social, legal, and physical deterioration.

Ritualism and sacrificing the animals for the purpose to eat their meat is a taboo. Eating of Kutha meat is not allowed as per Sikh Reht Maryada. Many of the Sikhs strongly believe that eating of meat is not allowed at all in Sikhism.

Adultery is not allowed at all in Sikhism. A Sikh is never allowed to share bed with any other person except the duly married spouse. A Sikh is required not to be involved in pre-marital and extra-marital relationship including sexual promiscuity. Sexual fidelity in Sikhism is confined to one's marital spouse which develops moral personality. These taboos are the pitfalls in the personality development and spiritual attainment of a mortal.

Is Amrit Chhakna essential for a Sikh ?

Every Sikh is under obligation and is required to enter into the order of Khalsa Brotherhood. This is a pledge to remain under control, authority and governess of the Ultimate Reality. Amritdhari has the honor of being a member of the Panth, a disciplined force of God. Bani and Bana, both are essential for a Sikh to attain the Truth but Bana alone is not the passport to attain God.

A Sikh must live life according to terms of Sikhism. There is general understanding that novice must have “lent period” during which he must prepare to go the way of Guru and a voluntary firm decision to change life style and must be desirous and willing to live by the values and virtues of Gurmat . Then and then only, the novice will become worthy to get the gift of Almighty Lord' grace and attain eternal unity.

Some people are of the view that initiation may be administered to a boy or girl when he or she reaches an intelligent age.

According to Bhai Gurdas,

“Whosoever gets initiation of the Guru and follows the Guru’s instructions is in fact a real Sikh.”
gur dIiKAw lY isK isK sdwieAw ]
(Bhai Gurdas Var 3.11)

The life may become successful and blessed, if you take Amrit of double edged sword
pIvhu pwhul KMfy Dwr, huie jnm suhylw ]
(Bhai Gurdas Var 41)

Whether Amrit Chhakna is Ritualism ?

One who performs external gesture without inner committment to the ideas being expressed under philosophy of Amrit, is performing ritual. Without practice of the teachings in life and without cleaning inside and outside, such like initiation will be termed as ritualism.

Amrit is not ritualism when novice promises and submits to the will of Gurmat, leads clean, pure and pious life according to concepts and philosophy of the Guru and emerges from the ordeal endowed with a totally different being from that which he possessed before his initiation.

For more reading,


Q. Name the ten Gurus of the Sikhs in the right order

1. Guru Nanak Dev Ji (1469 - 1539)
2. Guru Angad Dev Ji (1504 - 1552)
3. Guru Amardas Ji (1479 - 1574)
4. Guru Ramdas Ji (1534 - 1581)
5. Guru Arjan Dev Ji (1563 - 1606)
6. Guru Hargobind Ji (1595 - 1644)
7. Guru Har Rai Ji (1630 - 1661)
8. Guru Harkrishan Ji (1656 - 1664)
9. Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji (1621 - 1675)
10. Guru Gobind Singh Ji (1666 - 1708)

Q. Name the present Guru of the Sikhs

Guru Granth Sahib Ji and Guru Panth Khalsa

Q. Who were the four Sahebzadas ?

They were the sons of Guru Gobind Singh Ji.

Q. Name the four Sahebzadas

1. Baba Ajit Singh Ji (1687 - 1704)
2. Baba Jujhar Singh Ji (1689 - 1704)
3. Baba Zorawar Singh Ji (1696 - 1704)
4. Baba Fateh Singh Ji (1698 - 1704)

Q. Who was the eldest Sahebzada ?

Baba Ajit Singh Ji

Q. Who was the youngest Sahebzada ?

Baba Fateh Singh Ji

Q. Name the Sahebzadas who were bricked alive.

1. Baba Fateh Singh Ji
2. Baba Zorawar Singh Ji

Q. Name the Sahebzadas who achieved martyrdom in the battlefield of Chamkaur.

1. Baba Ajit Singh Ji
2. Baba Jujhar Singh Ji

Q. When & where was the Khalsa Panth created ?

It was created on the day of Vaisakhi (March 30) of the year 1699 at Kesgarh Saheb, Anandpur by Guru Gobind Singh Ji.

Q. What name did Guru Gobind Singh Ji give to the newly created Sikh Community ?

Khalsa Panth

Q. Name the first 'Panj Pyaras' (The five beloved ones)

1. Bhai Daya Singh Ji
2. Bhai Dharam Singh Ji
3. Bhai Himmat Singh Ji
4. Bhai Mohkkam Singh Ji
5. Bhai Saheb Singh Ji

Q. Name the five 'K's that every Sikh must always possess

1. Kes (unshorn hair)
2. Kangha (comb)
3. Kirpan (knife / sword)
4. Kaccha (short breeches)
5. Kara (wrist band / bangle)

Q. Who is the spiritual father of all Sikhs (Khalsas) ?

Guru Gobind Singh Ji

Q. Who is the spiritual mother of all Sikhs (Khalsas) ?

Mata Saheb Kaur Ji

Q. What is the native place of all Sikhs (Khalsas) ?

Anandpur Saheb

Q. What is the Sikh Salutation ?

Waheguru Ji Ka Khalsa
Waheguru Ji Ki Fateh

Q. What is the Sikh Jaikara ?

Jo Boley So Nihaal
Sat Sri Akaal

Q. What is the literal meaning of the word 'Sikh' ?


Q. What is the literal meaning of the word 'Singh' ?


Q. What is the literal meaning of the word 'Kaur' ?


Q. Name the five prayers that comprise 'NITNEM' the daily prayer of the Sikhs (according to the SGPC Rehat Maryada)

Morning (Dawn - Amrit Wela)
1. Japji Saheb
2. Jaap Saheb
3. Sawaiye
Evening (Dusk)
Q. Rehras Saheb which comprises Sodar, Choupai Saheb, Six (first 5 and 40th) Pauris of Anand Saheb, Mundawani, and Salok Mahala 2, the concluding hymn of Guru Granth Saheb.
Night (Before sleeping)

(Kirtan) Sohaila

Q. Which of the 'Baanis' of 'Nitnem' are not included in Guru Granth Saheb, but are taken from the 'Dasham Granth' ?

1. Jaap Saheb
2. Sawaye
3. Choupai Saheb (included in Rehras Saheb)

Q. What are the four main apostate acts ('Kuraihats') prohibited for a Sikh ?

1. Shaving or cutting of hair
2. Eating Kuttha meat
3. Adultery
4. Use of tobacco or any other intoxicant.

Q. Name the 'Five Takhts' of the Sikhs

1. Akal Takht, Amritsar
2. Harmandir Saheb, Patna (also known as Patna Saheb)
3. Kesgarh Saheb, Anandpur
4. Hazur Saheb, Nander
5. Damdama Saheb, Talwandi Sabo (Bhatinda)

Q. Which Guru started the formal teaching of the 'Gurmukhi' script ?

Guru Angad Dev Ji

Q. Which Guru formalised the concept of the shared meal into 'Guru-Ka-Langar' ?

Guru Amardas Ji

Q. Who was the most long-lived Guru ?

Guru Amardas Ji.

Q. Who got the tank excavated (dug out) in Amritsar ?

Guru Ramdas Ji

Q. Who built Harmandir Saheb (The Golden Temple) and gave a central place of worship to the Sikhs ?

Guru Arjan Dev Ji

Q. Who first placed the sheets of copper gilt on Harmandir Saheb ?

Maharaja Ranjit Singh

Q. Who first compiled the Guru Granth Saheb (The Adi Granth, then known as Pothi Saheb) ?

Guru Arjan Dev Ji

Q. When was the first compilation of Guru Granth Saheb installed in Harmandir Saheb ?

1604 A.D.

Q. Who was appointed the first Granthi of Guru Granth Saheb ?

Baba Buddha Ji

Q. Where is the original copy of Guru Granth Saheb placed ?

At Kartarpur

Q. How many pages does the standard printed volume of Guru Granth Saheb contain ?

1430 Pages

Q. Guru Granth Saheb contains the compositions of how many Gurus ?

Six Gurus : First Five Gurus & the Ninth Guru.

Q. When did Guru Granth Saheb get 'Guru Gaddi' (Guruship) ?

October 3, 1708 A.D.

Q. Which Guru was seated on a red-hot iron plate and burning hot sand put on his body ?

Guru Arjan Dev Ji

Q. Which Guru is entitled 'Shahidaan De Sirtaj' ?

Guru Arjan Dev Ji because he was the Pioneer and Champion of Martyrdom in Sikh History.

Q. Which Guru is related to 'MIRI-PIRI' ?

Guru Hargobind Ji

Q. Which Guru was beheaded ?

Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji

Q. Which Guru is entitled 'Hind Di Chadar' ?

Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji is entitled 'Hind Di Chadar' because he died to protect the Hindu faith.

Q. What is 'SIMARAN' ?

Contemplation of the Almighty God

Q. What is the ceremony of Sikh marriage called ?

Anand Karaj

Q. How many 'Lawans' are recited during the Sikh marriage ?


Q. How much of his income must every Sikh contribute for religious purposes ?

One-Tenth (called Daswandh)

Q. When was Guru Nanak Dev Ji born & where ?

April 15, 1469 A.D. in Talwandi (now in Pakistan - Nankana Saheb)

Q. Name the parents of Guru Nanak Dev Ji.

Father : Mehta Kalu Ji
Mother : Mata Tripta Ji

Q. Who were Bebe Nanaki & Bhai Jai Ram ?

Bebe Nanaki was Guru Nanak Dev Ji's older sister & Bhai Jai Ram was her husband.

Q. Name the wife of Guru Nanak Dev Ji.

Mata Sulakhani Ji

Q. Name the sons of Guru Nanak Dev Ji.

Baba Sri Chand Ji
Baba Lakhmi Das Ji.

Q. Which Guru established the first Gurdwara (Sangat) ? Where & when ?

Guru Nanak Dev Ji at Kartarpur in 1521 A.D.

Q. What were Guru Nanak Dev Ji's travels called ?


Q. Name the Muslim who accompanied Guru Nanak Dev Ji with a rebeck (a musical instrument invented by himself).

Bhai Mardana Ji.

Q. Where are the descendants of Mardana found ?

In Ramdas, the city of Baba Buddha, and are called Rababies or the people of Rebeck.

Q. During his travels, Guru Nanak Dev Ji went to Sayyadpur (now called Eminabad) and stayed at a carpenter's house (considered of low caste according to the Hindu caste system). Name the carpenter.

Bhai Laalo

Q. Who was the (high caste) local official there whose feast Guru Nanak Dev Ji rejected ?

Malik Bhaago

Q. Where was the first missionary center (Manji) established by Guru Nanak Dev Ji ?

The first 'Manji' was established at Bhai Laalo's house to spread Sikhism in Northern Punjab

Q. What was the abode of the Jogis (Yogis) of Gorakhnath clan called ?

Gorakhmata (later became known as Nanakmata)

Q. Name the mountains where Guru Nanak Dev Ji met the renowned 'Sidhas'.

Kailash Parbat (also called Sumer Parbat)

Q. Name the composition in Guru Granth Saheb Ji that records the dialogues Guru Nanak Dev Ji had with the 'Sidhas'.

Sidh Ghosht

Q. Name the so called cannibal that Guru Nanak Dev Ji met during his travel through the wilderness of Assam.

Kauda Rakhshash

Q. During his travels, whom did Guru Nanak Dev Ji meet at Sangladeep (Ceylon) ?

Raja Shiv Nabh

Q. Who was the founder of the Mughal dynasty in India ?


Q. Name the reigning Mughal ruler during Guru Nanak Dev Ji's time.


Q. What are the four hymns by Guru Nanak alluding to the invasions by Babar (1483- 1530 A.D.) collectively known as in Sikh literature ?

Babarvani (Guru Nanak described the atrocities of Babar and his men in Punjab)

Q. Where was Guru Nanak taken captive during Babar's invasion ?

Sayyadpur, now called Eminabad, in Gujranwala district of Pakistan

Q. Where did Guru Nanak Dev Ji meet Vali Kandhari ?

Hasan Abdal

Q. Name the Gurdwara, now in Pakistan, which stands at the place where Vali Kandhari's ego was broken.

Panja Saheb

Q. When and where did Guru Nanak Dev Ji become 'Joti Jot' (immersed in the Eternal Light) ?

In 1539 at Kartarpur

Q. How old was Guru Nanak Dev Ji when he passed away and transferred the 'Divine Light' over to Guru Angad Dev Ji ?

Seventy Years

Q. In which year was Guru Angad Dev Ji born ?

In 1504 A.D.

Q. What was the original name of Guru Angad Dev Ji ?

Bhai Lehna

Q. Name the father of Bhai Lehna Ji.

Bhai Pheru

Q. Who was Mata Kheevi Ji ?

She was the wife of Guru Angad Dev Ji.
She is the only woman in Sikh History whose name has been mentioned in Guru Granth Saheb Ji.

Q. Name the children of Guru Angad Dev Ji.

2 sons: Bhai Datu and Bhai Dasu
2 daughters: Bibi Amro Ji and Bibi Anokhi Ji

Q. In what year was Guru Angad Dev Ji appointed as Guru ?

1539 A.D.

Q. Where did Guru Angad Dev Ji stay during the years that Guru Amardas Ji served him ?

Khadur Saheb

Q. Who was Humayun, and why was he visiting Guru Angad Dev Ji ?

Humayun was Babar's son. Having been defeated by Sher Shah, he was fleeing India via Lahore and hearing the repute of Guru Angad Dev Ji, came to meet him at Khadur for his blessings, with a good number of presents

Q. When did Guru Angad Dev Ji become 'Joti Jot' (immersed in the Eternal Light)?

In 1552 A.D.

Q. When was Guru Amardas Ji born ?

In 1479 A.D.

Q. Name the parents of Guru Amardas Ji.

Bhai Tej Bhan and Mata Lakhmi (or Mata Bhakt Devi as per some historians)

Q. Name the wife of Guru Amardas Ji.

Bibi Mansa Devi

Q. Name the children of Guru Amardas Ji.

2 sons: Baba Mohan and Baba Mohri
2 daughters: Bibi Dani and Bibi Bhani

Q. Who was Bibi Amro Ji ?

She was the daughter of Guru Angad Dev Ji and daughter-in-law of the brother of Guru Amardas Ji.

Q. How old was Guru Amardas Ji when he met Guru Angad Dev Ji ?

61 years old

Q. For how many years did Guru Amardas Ji serve Guru Angad Dev Ji ?

12 Years

Q. What was the name of the river that Guru Amardas Ji walked to to get water for Guru Angad Dev Ji's bath ?

River Beas

Q. When was Guru Amardas Ji appointed as Guru ?

1552 A.D.

Q. Name the eldest son of Guru Angad Dev Ji who struck Guru Amardas Ji with his foot when Guru Ji was seated on Gurgaddi (Guru's seat).

Bhai Datu

Q. Which city was founded by Guru Amardas Ji, where he settled down after being appointed as Guru ?


Q. What is a baoli ?

A well with steps proceeding down to the water level.

Q. When was the Baoli (well) with 84 steps completed by Guru Amardas Ji in Goindval ?

In 1559 A.D.

Q. Who established the system of preachers called 'masands' ?

Guru Amardas Ji

Q. In which year did Emperor Akbar visit Guru Amardas Ji ?

1567 A.D.

Q. Why did Guru Amardas Ji refuse Emperor Akbar's offering of village revenues for the Guru-ka-langar ?

This Community Kitchen must be community supported and depend only on the offerings of the devout.

Q. What did one have to do before he was allowed to attend discourse of Guru Amardas Ji ?

They had to partake Guru-ka-langar

Q. What were the three special days declared by Guru Amardas Ji when all the Sikhs were to congregate from far and near at the Guru's place to hear His words ?

Baisakhi (April 13), Maghi (1st day of Magha, mid January) and Diwali (festival of lights in October/November)

Q. Guru Amardas Ji opposed the practice of Purdah. What is Purdah ?

Wearing of veil by women

Q. Guru Amardas Ji opposed the practice of Sati. What is Sati ?

The practice of burning the widow on her husbands funeral pyre is called Sati. When the husband died, the wife either voluntarily burnt herself on the pyre of her husband or was thrown into the fire without her consent. In popular term the woman who did perform this act was called Sati (truthful).

Q. How many missionaries ('masands') did Guru Amardas Ji train and sent out to various places ? Out of these, how many were women ?

Guru Amardas Ji trained and sent out 146 missionaries, out of which 52 were women. (Note: At one time, the country of Afghanistan and Kashmir were under the jurisdiction of women masands.)

Q. In which year did Guru Amardas Ji become 'Joti Jot' (immersed in the Eternal Light) ?

In 1574 A.D.

Q. In which year was Guru Ramdas Ji born ?

In 1534 A.D.

Q. Name the parents of Guru Ramdas Ji.

Hari Das and Anup Devi (some historians list Daya Kaur as the mother)

Q. What was Guru Ramdas Ji's wife's name ?

Bibi Bhani Ji. (Daughter of Guru Amardas Ji.)

Q. What was the original name of Guru Ramdas Ji ?

Bhai Jetha

Q. Name the three sons of Guru Ramdas Ji.

Prithi Chand (eldest)
Arjan Mal (later became Guru Arjan Dev Ji)

Q. When and where did Guru Ramdas Ji become 'Joti Jot' (immersed in the Eternal Light) ?

In 1581 A.D. at Goindval.

Q. In which year was Guru Arjan Dev Ji born ?

In 1563 A.D.

Q. What was Guru Arjan Dev Ji's wife's name ?

Mata Ganga Ji

Q. Name the only son of Guru Arjan Dev Ji.


Q. Name the son of Prithi Chand.


Q. In which year was the first construction of Harmandir Saheb (Golden Temple) completed ?

1589 A.D.

Q. Which guru taught obedience to Satta and Balwand when they struck work ?

Guru Arjan Dev Ji.

Q. Who was Bhai Gurdas ?

He was the nephew (son of younger brother) of Guru Amardas Ji. He was one of the most learned Sikhs and his writings are still respected by Sikhs. The copy of Guru Granth Saheb at Kartarpur is written in his hand.

Q. How was Bhai Gurdas Ji a relative of Guru Arjan Dev Ji ?

Bhai Gurdas Ji was the cousin brother of Bibi Bhaani Ji, who was the daughter of Guru Amardass Ji, wife of Guru Ramdas Ji, and mother of Guru Arjan Dev Ji

Q. Which Guru initiated Bhai Gurdas Ji into Sikhism ?

Guru Ramdas Ji

Q. Whom did Guru Arjan Dev Ji dictate the Adi Granth to ?

Bhai Gurdas Ji

Q. In which year did Bhai Gurdas die ?

1629 A.D.

Q. When did Akbar die ?

October 17, 1605 A.D.

Q. Under the rule of which Mughal Emperor was Guru Arjan Dev Ji made to sit on a red-hot iron plate ?


Q. Where & when did Guru Arjan Dev Ji achieve martyrdom ?

In Lahore on May 25, 1606 A.D.

Q. Name the Gurdwara, now in Pakistan, that stands at the place where Guru Arjan Dev Ji was martyred.

Dehra Saheb

Q. In which year was Guru Hargobind Ji born ?

In 1595 A.D.

Q. Name the wifes of Guru Hargobind Ji.

Bibi Damodri, Bibi Mahadevi, and Bibi Nanaki

Q. How many sons did Guru Hargobind Ji have ? Name them.

He had Five Sons. They were :

1. Baba Gurditta (Born of Bibi Damodri) (Father of Guru Harrai)
2. Baba Suraj Mal (Born of Bibi Mahadevi)
3. Baba Ani Rai (Born of Bibi Nanaki)
4. Baba Atal Rai (Born of Bibi Nanaki)
5. (Guru) Tegh Bahadur (Born of Bibi Nanaki)

Q. Name the daughter of Guru Hargobind Ji.

Bibi Viro (Born of Bibi Damodri)

Q. How high is the tower of Baba Atal (built in memory of Baba Atal in Amritsar) ?

It is 9 storeys high.

Q. Where was Guru Hargobind Ji sent as a state prisoner ?

Fort of Gwalior.

Q. How many princes who were already imprisoned in the Fort of Gwalior got freed along with Guru Hargobind Ji ?


Q. Guru Hargobind Ji donned the sword as a twin symbol of two powers. Name them.

Miri (Temporal Power) & Piri (Spiritual Power).

Q. Name the fortification that Guru Hargobind Ji put up in Amritsar.


Q. What is the literal meaning of Akal Takht ?

Throne of the Almighty.

Q. Who built the Akal Takht (then called Akal Bunga) ?

Guru Hargobind Ji

Q. When did Guru Hargobind Ji build Akal Takht (Akal Bunga) in Amritsar ?

In 1609 A.D.

Q. Why did Guru Hargobind Saheb Ji build the Akaal Takht directly across from Harmandar Saheb ?

To represent the unity of spiritual and secular (military) affairs. Akaal Takhat (miri) was complimentary to Harmandar Saheb (piri).

Q. When did Jehangir die ?

October 28, 1627 A.D.

Q. In which year was the first battle between Emperor Shah Jahan and Guru Hargobind Saheb Ji fought ?

The battle took place in 1634 A.D. The Emperor sent an army of 7000 cavalry under the command of his general Mukhlis Khan to capture the Guru. In the ensuing battle the Gurus forces emerged victorious after the Guru killed Mukhlis Khan in single combat with his sword. This battle marked a turning point as the Sikhs now turned militant under mughal persecution.

Q. How many battles did Guru Hargobind Saheb Ji fight against the attacking Mughal armies of Shah Jahan ?

Six battles (He won all the battles)

Q. Who were the two masands of Kaabul who were bringing two choice steeds (horses) of high pedigree to Guru Hargobind Saheb Ji ?

Bakht Mal and Tara Chand

Q. Name the reigning Mughal rulers during Guru Hargobind Ji's time.

Jehangir and Shah Jahan

Q. Name the person who recovered the Kabul horses from the Mughals.

Bhai Bidhi Chand. (The horses belonged to a Sikh who was bringing them from Kabul as an offering for Guru Hargobind Ji, but they were seized on the way by the Mughals. Bidhi Chand recovered the first horse disguised as a hay-seller, and the second disguised as an astrologer.)

Q. What were the names of two horses that Bidhi Chand rescued from the stables of the governor of Lahore ?

Dilbaag and Gulbaag

Q. Who recited the correct pronunciation ('Shudh Paath') of Japji Saheb to Guru Hargobind Ji ?

Bhai Gopala Ji

Q. How many Gurus did Baba Budha Ji serve ?


Q. How old was Baba Budha Ji when he passed away in 1631 ?

125 years old

Q. In which year did Guru Hargobind Ji become 'Joti Jot' (immersed in the Eternal Light) ?

In 1644 A.D.

Q. In which year and where was Guru Har Rai Ji born ?

In 1630 A.D. at Kiratpur.

Q. Name the father of Guru Har Rai Ji.

Baba Gurditta Ji.

Q. Name the brother of Guru Har Rai Ji.

Dhir Mal.

Q. Name the wife of Guru Har Rai Ji.

Krishan Kaur

Q. How many sons did Guru Harrai have ? Name them.

He had Two sons. They were :

1. Ram Rai
2. (Guru) Harkrishan

Q. Who was punished (excommunicated from the community) for misinterpreting Gurbani and displaying miracles before Aurangzeb ?

Ram Rai, son of Guru Harrai Ji.

Q. In which year did Guru Har Rai Ji become 'Joti Jot' (immersed in the Eternal Light) ?

1661 A.D.

Q. In which year was Guru Harkrishan Ji born ?

1656 A.D.

Q. How old was Guru Harkrishan Ji when he received the Guruship ?

5 (five) years old

Q. Which Gurdwara stands at the place of Mirza Raja Jai Singh's bungalow where Guru Harkrishan Ji stayed when he came to Delhi ?

Gurdwara Bangla Saheb.

Q. In which year did Guru Harkrishan Ji become 'Joti Jot' (immersed in the Eternal Light) ?

1664 A.D.

Q. How old was Guru Harkrishan Ji when he became 'Joti Jot' ?

8 (eight) years old

Q. Which Gurdwara stands at the place where Guru Harkrishan Ji's body was cremated after he became 'Joti Jot' ?

Gurdwara Bala Saheb.

Q. What were the last words of Guru Harkrishan Ji announcing the next Guru ?

"Baba Bakale", which meant that his successor is his grand uncle and would be found at village of Bakala

Q. How many members of the Sodhi family gathered at the village of Bakala claiming that they were the Guru and successor as named by Guru Harkrishan Ji ?

About 22 (twenty two)

Q. Who found out the true Guru in Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji and proclaimed him to the world, thus exposing the fake pretenders ?

Bhai Makhan Shah

Q. In which year and where was Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji born ?

In 1621 A.D. at Amritsar.

Q. What was Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji's wife's name ?

Mata Gujri Ji

Q. How many children did Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji have ? Name them.

One son. Gobind Rai later became Guru Gobind Singh Ji.

Q. Who denied Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji entry to the Golden Temple ?

The Sodhi Mahants

Q. At Kamrup (Assam), which two forces made a compromise brought about by Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji ?

The forces of Raja Ram Singh (a Rajput General of Aurangzeb who led an expedition against Assam) and Ahom King (the local King)

Q. Where did Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji get a huge mound built in memory of Guru Nanak's visit to that place ?


Q. Which Mughal Emperor ordered Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji to be beheaded at Chandni Chowk, Delhi ?


Q. Who were the other three martyred along with Guru Tegh Bahadur by order of Aurangzeb ?

1. Bhai Mati Das
2. Bhai Sati Das
3. Bhai Dayala

Q. How were these three martyred ?

1. Bhai Mati Das: Sawn into two halves
2. Bhai Sati Das: Burnt in cotton wrapped around his body
3. Bhai Dayala: Boiled in hot water

Q. Name the leader of the delegation of 500 Kashmiri brahmins that came to Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji for help.

Pandit Kirpa Ram (later became the Sanskrit teacher of Guru Gobind Singh Ji and eventually became a Khalsa and died fighting in the battle of Chamkaur.)

Q. How old was Gobind Rai (Guru Gobind Singh) then ?

9 (nine) years old

Q. Where & when did Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji achieve martyrdom ?

In Delhi on November 11, 1675 A.D.

Q. Which Gurdwara stands at the place where Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji was beheaded ?

Gurdwara Sis Ganj, Chandni Chowk, Delhi

Q. Who cremated Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji's body after he was beheaded ?

Bhai Lakhi Shah.

Q. Which Gurdwara stands at the place where the body of Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji was cremated after he was beheaded ?

Gurdwara Rakab Ganj, Delhi

Q. Who took Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji's head to Anandpur ?

Bhai Jaita Ji.

Q. Which Gurdwara stands at the place where Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji's head was cremated ?

Gurdwara Sis Ganj, Anandpur

Q. Who built Gurdwara Rakab Ganj and Gurdwara Sis Ganj in Delhi ?

Sardar Baghel Singh in 1790 A.D.

Q. When was Guru Gobind Singh Ji born & where ?

December 22, 1666 A.D. in Patna.

Q. What is the significance of Patna Saheb (one of the 5 Takhts) ?

It is the birth place of Guru Gobind Singh Ji.

Q. Who built Harmandir Saheb, Patna (Patna Saheb) ?

Maharaja Ranjit Singh

Q. In what year did Bhai Nandlaal Goyaa go to Anandpur Saheb to pay homage to Guru Gobind Singh Ji ?


Q. Who were the poems of Bhai Nandlaal Goyaa about ?

Guru Gobind Singh Ji

Q. Which was the first battle fought between Guru Gobind Singh Ji and the hill chiefs ?

The Battle of Bhangani was fought in February 1686 between Guru Gobind Singh Ji and the hill chiefs led by Raja Bhim Chand of Kahlur. The hill chiefs received a crushing defeat at the hands of the Guru.

Q. In which battle did Guru Gobind Singh Ji's Pathans leave him at a very critical point ?

Battle of Bhangani

Q. How many sons did Peer Budhu Shah have? How many of them died in the battle of Bhangani ?

He had four sons, two of which died in the battle of Bhangani

Q. What did Guru Gobind Singh Ji give Peer Budhu Shah in remembrance of services rendered in the battle at Bhangaani ?

A kanga with some of his broken hair, a kirpan (sword) and a turban

Q. What is the significance of Kesgarh Saheb (one of the 5 Takhts) ?

Khalsa Panth was created here on Vaisakhi of 1699 A.D. by Guru Gobind Singh Ji.

Q. What is the meaning of the word "Khalsa" ?

"Khalsa" is a technical term which in the days of Mughal administration meant inalienable lands or revenues directly looked after or administered by the government of the king. Guru Gobind Singh applied this word specifically to those of the Sikhs whom he had baptized as Singhs/Kaurs. To them he gave the name of Khalsa, 'his own'. (Note that it is not correct to translate the word Khalsa as 'pure'. The word for pure is 'khalis'. The word 'Khalsa' has, however, been derived from 'khalis'.)

Q. At the Vaisakhi of 1699, after administering Khande-Ki-Pahul (Baptism) to the Punj Pyare (five beloved ones), what did Guru Gobind do ?

He stood before them with folded hands, and begged them to baptise him in the same way as he had baptised them.

Q. What was the significance of Guru Gobind Singh bowing down before the Punj Pyare ?

He was proclaiming the Punj Pyare to collectively be the Guru. The commission of Punj Pyare was to take his place after him and were competent to conduct the ceremony of baptism after him. What Guru Gobind Singh Ji did was to separate the personal and the scriptural aspects of the Guruship. The one he gave to the Khalsa (Miri) and the other to the Holy Granth (Piri). Both acQ.uired the title of Guru, and were to be addressed as Guru Granth and Guru Panth.

Q. How many people were baptised after the Vaisakhi of 1699 ?

Approximately, 80,000 people were baptised in a few days after the Vaisakhi of 1699.

Q. What happened to those who stood out in opposition to this new mission ?

Guru Gobind Singh Ji ordered that all those who called themselves Sikhs should get themselves confirmed by receiving the new baptism of the sword (Khande-Ki-Pahul). Those who still stood in opposition to his mission - such as Minas, Dhirmalias, and Ramraiyas - were ostracised and their company was forbidden to the true Sikhs.

Q. How did Guru Gobind Singh Ji start celebrating the Holi festival ?

Guru Gobind Singh Ji started celebrating the Holi festival in his own way. He called it 'Hola Mahalla'. On the day following the Hindu festival, he held a military parade of all the Sikhs, who came out in their best and went through a sort of mimic battle.

Q. What is a 'Khanda' ?

Khanda is a double-edged dagger. The Sikh emblem with the two swords of Miri-Piri, a Chakkar, and a Khanda in the middle, derives it's name from this Khanda.

Q. When did the battle of Anandpur take place ?

1701 - 1704 A.D.

Q. At the battle of Anandpur, who cut off the head of Raja Kesari Chand ?

Bhai Ude Singh

Q. What was the name of the Sikh who drove a spear into the elephant's head at the battle of Anandpur ?

Bhai Bachittar Singh

Q. Where did Raja Gummand Chand die ?

Battle of Anandpur Saheb

Q. In the battle of Anandpur Saheb, who gave water to all dying soldiers irrespective of whether they were Sikhs or Muslims ?

Bhai Kanhaiya (later became Kanhaiya Singh)

Q. When and where did Guru Gobind Singh Ji separate from his mother and two younger sons before going to the fort of Chamkaur ?

December 20, 1704, at Sirsa river

Q. Who betrayed Mata Gujri Ji and the two younger sons of Guru Gobind Singh Ji to the Nawab of Sirhind ?

Gangu Brahmin

Q. Where were Mata Gujri Ji and the two younger sons of Guru Gobind Singh Ji kept after being imprisoned ?

Saman Burj (tower), Sirhind

Q. Name the Gurdwara that stands at the place where the younger Sahebzadas were bricked alive.

Fatehgarh Saheb (Fort of Victory)

Q. From which fort did the Panj Pyare (5 chosen ones) order Guru Gobind Singh Ji to leave for his safety ?

Fort of Chamkaur

Q. What was the name of the Jungle that Guru Gobind Singh Ji wandered through bare-foot after leaving the fort of Chamkaur ?


Q. Name the two Pathans who helped Guru Gobind Singh Ji march through the Mughal camp.

Nabi Khaan and Gani Khaan

Q. Name the Persian tutor of Guru Gobind Singh Ji who helped him when he was called to identify 'Uch-da-Peer'.

Q.azi Pir Muhammad

Q. When did Guru Gobind Singh Ji receive the news of the martyrdom of the younger Sahebzadas ?

At Jatpura by a messenger sent by Rai Kalha

Q. What was his prophecy there ?

On hearing the news, he pulled a shrub from its roots with his arrow and said: "thus will this tyrannous rule be destroyed, root and branch."

Q. Who were the 'Chaali Mukte' i.e. the forty freed ones referred to in the Sikh 'Ardas' ?

They were those forty Sikhs belonging to the village of Majha, who first denied Guru Gobind Singh Ji to be their Guru and later on got martyred for his sake fighting near the lake of Khidrana, also called Isharsar, on 29 December, 1705 after realising their mistake. Guru Gobind Singh Ji blessed them as Chali Mukte, the Forty Immortals. After them Khidrana became Muktsar - the Pool of Liberation.(NOTE : Some writers also refer the forty Sikhs who got killed in the fort of Chamkaur ('Chamkaur Di Gari') while facing an army of one million as the 'Chaali Mukte')

Q. Name the leader of the 'Chaali' (40) Mukte who fought for Guru Gobind Singh Ji in Muktsar.

Bhai Maha Singh Ji.

Q. Who was Mai Bhago Ji ?

Mai Bhago Ji led the forty Sikhs (Chaali Muktey) back to Guru Gobind Singh Ji. She had also suffered injury in the battle. Guru Gobind Singh Ji took her in his care and there after she stayed on with Guru Gobind Singh Ji as one of his bodyguard, in male attire. After the death of Guru Gobind Singh Ji at Nanded in 1708, she retired further south. She settled down at Jinvara, 11 km from Bidar in Karnataka where, immersed in meditation, she lived to attain a ripe old age. Her hut in Jinvara has now been converted into Gurdwara Tap Asthan Mai Bhago.

Q. Who was once boasting about his bravery to Guru Gobind Singh Ji ?

Bhai Dalla

Q. What is the significance of Damdama Saheb, Talwandi Sabo (one of the 5 Takhts) ?

1. Guru Gobind Singh Ji reproduced the whole Guru Granth Saheb here from memory.
2. He made it a great seat of learning and called it 'Guru Ki Kashi'.

Q. What does 'Damdama' mean ?

Resting place.

Q. Whom did Guru Gobind Singh Ji dictate the Guru Granth Saheb to ?

Bhai Mani Singh Ji

Q. Guru Granth Saheb contains the compositions of how many Bhagats ? Name them.

Fifteen Bhagats. They are :

1. Beni
2. Bhikhan
3. Dhanna
4. Farid
5. Jaidev
6. Kabir
7. Namdev
8. Parmanand
9. Pipa
10. Ramanand
11. Ravidas
12. Sadhna
13. Sain
14. Surdas
15. Trilochan

Q. Which Bhagat has contributed the highest number of hymns in Guru Granth Saheb ?

Bhagat Kabir Ji (541 hymns out of a total of 922 by 15 bhagats). The compositions consist of 227 Padas in 17 Raags and 237 Salokas.

Q. In what year was Kabir Das Ji born ?

1398 A.D.

Q. What does the word 'Kabir' mean ?

Kabir is an Arabic word meaning 'Great'.

Q. What caste did Kabir Ji belong to ?


Q. What was the hereditary occupation of Bhagat Kabir ?

Bhagat Kabir was a Weaver.

Q. Who was Kabir's Guru (teacher) ?

Swami Ramanand

Q. Name the two collections of Kabir Ji's works.

Kabir Granthavali and Bijak

Q. When did Kabir pass away ?

1448 A.D. (According to some traditional accounts, including those of the Kabirpanthis, as the followers of Kabir are called, he lived for 120 years, from 1398 to 1518).

Q. When was Sheikh Farid born ?

1173 A.D.

Q. Who is known to be the first recorded poet of the Punjabi language ?

Sheikh Farid, the Sufi mystic and teacher.

Q. What does the word 'Farid' mean ?

Farid is an Arabic word meaning 'UniQ.ue'.

Q. How many compositions of Sheikh Farid are incorporated in the Guru Granth Saheb ?

4 (Four) Shabads (Hymns) and 112 Salokas (couplets). Guru Nanak, Guru Amardas, and Guru Arjan have continued the theme of some of Farid's couplets.

Q. When did Sheikh Farid pass away ?

1265 A.D.

Q. How many hymns has Bhagat Beni contributed in the Guru Granth Saheb ?

3 (Three) Hymns in Sri Raag, Raag Ramkali, and Raag Prabhati.

Q. How many hymns has Bhagat Bhikhan (1480 A.D.-1573 A.D.) contributed in the Guru Granth Saheb ?

2 (Two) Hymns.

Q. When was Bhagat Dhanna born ?

1415 A.D.

Q. How many hymns has Bhagat Dhanna contributed in the Guru Granth Saheb ?

3 (Three) Hymns.

Q. How many hymns has Bhagat Jaidev contributed in the Guru Granth Saheb ?

2 (Two) Hymns in Raag Gujri and Raag Maru.

Q. How many hymns has Bhagat Namdev (1270 A.D.-1350 A.D.) contributed in the Guru Granth Saheb ?

61 (Sixty one) Hymns.

Q. What was the hereditary occupation of Bhagat Namdev ?

Bhagat Namdev was a Calico-printer.

Q. How many hymns has Bhagat Parmanand contributed in the Guru Granth Saheb ?

1 (One) Hymn on page 1253 of Guru Granth Saheb.

Q. When was Bhagat Pipa born ?

About 1425 A.D.

Q. How many hymns has Bhagat Pipa contributed in the Guru Granth Saheb ?

1 (One) Hymn.

Q. How many hymns has Bhagat Ramanand (1300 A.D.-1410 A.D.) contributed in the Guru Granth Saheb ?

1 (One) Hymn on page 1195 of Guru Granth Saheb.

Q. What was the hereditary occupation of Bhagat Ravidas ?

Bhagat Ravidas was a cobbler. He followed the family profession of tanning hides and making shoes.

Q. How many hymns has Bhagat Ravidas contributed in the Guru Granth Saheb ?

40 (Forty) Hymns.

Q. What was the hereditary occupation of Bhagat Sadhna ?

Bhagat Sadhna was a butcher.

Q. How many hymns has Bhagat Sadhna contributed in the Guru Granth Saheb ?

1 (One) Hymn in Raag Bilaval on page 858 of Guru Granth Saheb.

Q. How many hymns has Bhagat Sain contributed in the Guru Granth Saheb ?

1 (One) Hymn.

Q. What was the hereditary occupation of Bhagat Sain ?

Bhagat Sain was a barber.

Q. When was Bhagat Surdas born ?

1529 A.D.

Q. How many hymns has Bhagat Surdas contributed in the Guru Granth Saheb ?

1 (One) Hymn in Raag Saarang. In fact, it is not a complete hymn, but a single line: "O mind, abandon the company of those who turn away from God". (Surdas whose verse figures in the Guru Granth Saheb is to be differentiated from the blind poet of the same name who wrote Sur Sagar).

Q. When was Bhagat Trilochan born ?

1267 A.D.

Q. What is the literal meaning of 'Trilochan' ?

The three-eyed, i.e. one who can see the past, present, and future all at once.

Q. How many hymns of Bhagat Trilochan are included in the Guru Granth Saheb ?

4 (Four) Hymns, one each in Sri Raag and Raag Dhanasari, and two in Raag Gujri.

Q. Who were the 'Bhattas' ?

Bhattas were bards who recited poetry lauding the grandeur of a ruler or the gallantry of a warrior. In the Sikh tradition, Bhattas are poets with the personal experience and vision of the spirituality of the Gurus whom they celebrate in their verse.

Q. Guru Granth Saheb contains the compositions of how many 'Bhattas' ? Name them.

Eleven Bhattas. They are :

1. Bal
2. Bhal
3. Bhikha
4. Gayand
5. Harbans
6. Jalap
7. Kirat
8. Kulh Sahar
9. Mathra
10. Nal
11. Sal

Q. What is the total number of Savaiye contributed by the Bhattas in Guru Granth Saheb ?

123 (One hundred twenty three).

Q. Which Bhatta is reckoned to be the most learned of all the Bhattas ?

Kulh (also called Kul Sahar or Kul Thakur).

Q. What are 'Chaupadas' ?

Hymns of four padas or verses (stanzas).

Q. What are 'Chhepadas' ?

Hymns of six padas or stanzas.

Q. What are 'Chakas' ?

A sixer. It signifies a bunch of six padas.

Q. What are 'Dupadas' ?

Hymns of two padas or verses (stanzas).

Q. What are 'Panchpadas' ?

Hymns of five padas or verses (stanzas).

Q. What are 'Chhants' ?

Lyrics usually of four stanzas each.

Q. What are 'Ashtpadas' ?

Hymns of eight verses.

Q. Who wrote Sukhmani Saheb ?

Guru Arjan Dev Ji.

Q. Which Raag is Sukhmani Saheb written in ?

Raag Gauri.

Q. What is the literal meaning of 'Sukhmani' ?

Consoler of the mind.

Q. When is the Sukhmani Saheb believed to have been composed ?

Around 1602-1603 A.D.

Q. How many cantos (Ashtpadas) are contained in Sukhmani Saheb ?

24 (Twenty Four), each comprising eight stanzas. A Sloka or couplet precedes each Ashtpadi.

Q. What is a 'Salok' ?

Sloka, in Sanskrit, signifies a verse of laudation. In Hindi and Punjabi, Salok has come to imply a couplet with a moral or devotional content.

Q. How many Saloks are contained in Salok Mahala 9 (Saloks of the composition of Guru Teg Bahadur, forming the concluding portion of the Guru Granth Saheb, preceding Guru Arjan's Mundavani)

57 (Fifty Seven). They were incorporated in Guru Granth Saheb by Guru Gobind Singh. As is commonly believed, they were composed by Guru Teg Bahadur while in the 'Kotwali' (prison) at Chandni Chowk, Delhi, before he achieved martyrdom.

Q. How many Saloks comprise Salok Sahaskriti ?

71 (Seventy One) verses (67 by Guru Arjan and 4 by Guru Nanak).

Q. What does the term 'Sahaskriti' denote ?

The term 'Sahaskriti' denotes the language-form, a mixture of Sanskrit, Pali, and Prakrit, in which these Salokas have been written.

Q. What is a 'Vaar' ?

Vaar is a verse form in Punjabi, popular in folklore as well as in refined poetry. In the old bardic tradition of the Punjab, Vaar meant the poem itself with it's typical theme as also the form in which it was cast. Structurally, a Vaar consists ofa number of stanzas called Pauris. The number of Pauris as well as lines to a Pauri varies from Vaar to Vaar, though the lines to a Pauri must have a common rhyme.

Q. How many Vaars are contained in the Guru Granth Saheb ?

Guru Granth Saheb contains 22 (Twenty Two) Vaars dealing with spiritual and ethical themes.

Q. Who composed the highest number of Vaars in Guru Granth Saheb ?

Guru Ram Das composed the highest number of Vaars, eight out of the twenty two included in the Guru Granth Saheb. Among the rest, three are by Guru Nanak, four by Guru Amardas, six by Guru Arjan, and one Vaar is by the bards, Satta and Balvand, attached to the Gurus.

Q. Which Vaars in Guru Granth Saheb don't have Salokas ?

All the Vaars in Guru Granth Saheb with the exception of Basant Ki Vaar and Ramkali Ki Vaar by Satta and Balvand, have Salokas added to their Pauris by Guru Arjan at the time of the compilation of the Adi Granth.

Q. What are the 'Salok Varaan Te Vadheek' in Guru Granth Saheb ?

The 'Salok Varaan Te Vadheek' is the title given to the miscellany comprising 152 Salokas or couplets appearing in the concluding portion of Guru Granth Saheb. Guru Arjan, when compiling the Adi Granth, introduced Salokas by the Gurus he had collected into the text of 'Vaars'. The couplets left over in the process were assembled under the caption 'Salok Varaan Te Vadheek', i.e. Salokas in excess of the Vaars.

Q. What are the 'Vaaraan Bhai Gurdas' ?

Vaaraan Bhai Gurdas is the title given to the collection of forty Vaars (or ballads) written in Punjabi by Bhai Gurdas. These Vaars, which are accepted as part of approved Sikh canon, reiterate or explain in simple idiom what was contained in the Sikh scripture. In fact, the Vaars were designated by Guru Arjan as the key to the Guru Granth Saheb.

Q. According to the index of Ragas at the end of Guru Granth Saheb Ji, what is the total number of Ragas and Raginis ?

84 (Eighty Four)

Q. How many has the Guru used ?

31 (Thirty One), the first being Sri Raag and the last Jaijavanti.

Q. Name these 31 Ragas

1. Sriraag
2. Majh
3. Gauri
4. Aasa
5. Gujri
6. Devgandhari
7. Bihagarha
8. Vadhans
9. Sorath
10. Dhanasari
11. Jaitsari
12. Todi
13. Baerari
14. Tilang
15. Suhi
16. Bilawal
17. Gond
18. Ramkali
19. Nat Narayan
20. Mali Gourha
21. Maru
22. Tukhari
23. Kedara
24. Bhairou
25. Basant
26. Sarang
27. Malar
28. Kanrha
29. Kalyan
30. Prabhati
31. Jaijavanti

Q. Who wrote the 'Zaffarnama' ?

While at Dina, Guru Gobind Singh Ji wrote this 'Epistle of Victory' in Persian to Aurangzeb. In this he reminded him of his ill-treatment, and told him that, though so many of his Sikhs, besides his sons, had been killed, he was still unconQ.uered.

Q. When did Aurangzeb die ?

February, 1707 A.D.

Q. Who was the eldest son of Aurangzeb and why didn't he become the next Emperor ?

Muhammad Sultan died before Aurangzeb on December 14, 1676.

Q. Name the third son of Aurangzeb who proclaimed himself the Emperor of India after the death of Aurangzeb.

Muhammad Azam

Q. Name the second son of Aurangzeb who was the heir-apparent and who begged Guru Gobind Singh Ji's assistance against his brother, Muhammad Azam.

Prince Muhammad Muazzam (later became Emperor Muhammad Muazzam Bahadur Shah)

Q. In which battle did Guru Gobind Singh Ji lend a helping hand to Muhammad Muazzam ?

Battle of Jajau (June 8, 1707)

Q. Who stabbed Guru Gobind Singh Ji ?

One of the two pathans sent by Wazir Khan to kill Guru Gobind Singh Ji

Q. When did Guru Gobind Singh Ji become 'Joti Jot' (immersed in the Eternal Light) ?

October 7, 1708 A.D.

Q. What is the significance of Hazur Saheb (one of the 5 Takhts) ?

Guru Gobind Singh Ji became 'Joti Jot' (immersed in the Eternal Light) here in 1708 A.D.

Q. Who built Hazur Saheb ?

Maharaja Ranjit Singh

Q. On the banks of which river is Hazur Saheb situated ?

River Godavari

Q. What was the relationship between Akbar, Jehangir, Shah Jahan and Aurangzeb ?

Jehangir was Akbar's son, Shah Jahan's father and Aurangzeb's grandfather.
(Akbar -->Jehangir -->Shah Jahan -->Aurangzeb)

Q. Name the cities founded by the Gurus.

Guru Nanak Dev Ji: Kartarpur
Guru Angad Dev Ji: Khadur Saheb
Guru Amardas Ji: Goindval Saheb
Guru Ramdas Ji: Amritsar
Guru Arjan Dev Ji: Tarn Taran, Kartarpur (Jullunder), Sri Hargobindpur
Guru Hargobind Ji: Kiratpur, Mehrey
Guru Har Rai Ji: Bagat and Chiryaghar of Kiratpur
Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji: Anandpur (originally known as Chak Nanaki)
Guru Gobind Singh Ji: Paonta Saheb, Guru Ka Lahore

Q. Name the six forts of Anandpur.


Q. Name the five cardinal vices.

1. Kam (Lust, fornication)
2. Krodh (Anger, wrath)
3. Lobh (Greed, hoarding)
4. Moh (Worldly attachment)
5. Ahankar (Conceit, egoism, pride)

Q. What are the virtuous counterparts of these five vices ?

1. Self Control of Kam
2. Forgiveness of Krodh
3. Contentment of Lobh
4. Love of God of Moh
5. Humility of Ahankar

Q. Name Ten historic Gurdwaras in Pakistan.

1. Bal Leela
2. Chhevin Patshai
3. Dehra Saheb
4. Kyara Saheb
5. Maal Ji Saheb
6. Nankana Saheb
7. Panja Saheb
8. Pati Saheb
9. Sacha Soda
10. Tambu Saheb

Q. Name the five 'sarovars' of Amritsar.


Q. Where has the starting 'Pauri' of 'Ardas' i.e. from 'Sri Bhagauti Ji Sahay Sab thain hoe sahay' taken from ?

It is the first 'Pauri' of 'Bhagauti Ki Vaar' (or 'Chandi Ki Vaar') taken from the 'Dasham Granth'.

Q. Referring to the daily Sikh 'Ardas' where the various Sikh martyrs are remembered, write the type of martyrdom that the following Sikhs underwent :

1. Bhai Mati Das: Sawn into two pieces (Aariyaan naal cheere gaye)
2. Bhai Mani Singh: Body was cut at each joint (Band band kataye)
3. Bhai Taru Singh: His hair was scrapped off his scalp (Khopariaan utarwaiyaan)
4. Bhai Shahbaz Singh: He and his father (Subeg Singh) were crushed on the wheel. (Charakhariyaan te chare)

Q. Write the inter-family relationships of the Gurus after Guru Amardas.

1. Guru Ramdas Ji was the son-in-law of Guru Amardas Ji
2. Guru Arjan Dev Ji was the son of Guru Ramdas Ji
3. Guru Hargobind Ji was the son of Guru Arjan Dev Ji
4. Guru Harrai Ji was the grandson of Guru Hargobind Ji
5. Guru Harkrishan Ji was the son of Guru Harrai Ji
6. Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji was the son of Guru Hargobind Ji
7. Guru Gobind Singh Ji was the son of Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji.

Q. When was Banda Singh Bahadur born ?

October 27, 1670 A.D.

Q. What was his name in childhood ?

Lachhman Das

Q. What does "Bairagi" mean ?

One who gives up worldly life; a sect of Vaishanavs.

Q. Name the Bairagi who captivated the heart of Lachhman Das and made him his disciple.

Janaki Prasad

Q. What was Lachhman Das named by the Bairagis ?

Madho Das Bairagi

Q. Name the old Yogi that Madho Das met in Nasik and learnt 'Tantric Science' (secrets of yoga and occultism) from.

Aughar Nath

Q. When and where did Guru Gobind Singh Ji meet Madho Das ?

Autumn of 1708 in Nanded

Q. What did Guru Gobind Singh Ji name Madho Das after administering Amrit (Pahul) to him ?

Banda Singh

Q. What does 'Banda' mean ?


Q. What title was given to Banda Singh by Guru Gobind Singh Ji before he left for Punjab ?

Banda Singh 'Bahadur'

Q. Who were the five 'Punj Pyare' appointed to assist Banda Singh ?

1. Bhai Binod Singh
2. Bhai Kahan Singh (son of Bhai Binod Singh)
3. Bhai Baaj Singh
4. Bhai Daya Singh
5. Bhai Ram Singh (Brother of Bhai Baaj Singh)

Q. What were the emblems of temporal authority bestowed upon Banda Singh before his departure to Punjab ?

A Nishan sahib (Flag) and a Nagara (Drum)

Q. Whom did Guru Gobind Singh Ji nominate as the first Jathedar (commander of the forces) of the Khalsa Panth ?

Banda Singh Bahadur

Q. Which was the first town that Banda Singh's army attacked ?


Q. Why did Banda Singh Bahadur's army attack Samana ?

It was the residence of Sayyed Jalal-ud-din, the executioner of Guru Teg Bahadur, and of Shashal Beg and Bashal Beg, the executioners of the younger Sahibzadas at Sirhind.

Q. When was Samana conQ.uered ?

November 26, 1709 A.D.

Q. Name the ruler of Sadhaura who had tortured to death the great Muslim Saint, Sayyed Buddhu Shah, because he had helped Guru Gobind Singh Ji in the battle of Bhangani.

Osman Khan

Q. Who abolished the Zamindaari (absentee landlord) system ?

Banda Singh Bahadur

Q. When did Banda Singh Bahadur attack Sirhind, where the Nawab had ordered the live-burial of the younger Sahebzadas ?

On May 12, 1710 A.D. (The battle was fought at Chhappar Chiri, 20 kms from Sarhind.)

Q. What did Wazir Khan do, and who killed him ?

Wazir Khan ordered the murder of the two younger sons of Guru Gobind Singh Ji. Fateh Singh killed him in the Battle of Chappar-Chiri.

Q. Name the Sikh woman who had been carried away by Sher Muhammed Khan of Maler Kotla and buried in a grave after she had committed suicide to save her honor.

Bibi Anup Kaur (Banda Singh's forces dug the grave to perform her last religious rites)

Q. Whom did Banda Singh appoint as Governor of Sirhind after conQ.uering Sirhind ?

Baaj Singh

Q. Whom did Banda Singh appoint as Governor of Samana ?

Fateh Singh

Q. What did Banda Singh Bahadur name the Fort of Mukhlispur after repairing it ?

Lohgarh meaning Iron Fort. (For all intents and purposes, it became the capital of the Sikh territories.)

Q. After assuming royal authority at Lohgarh, what did Banda Singh Bahadur do ?

1. He struck coins in the name of the Guru.
2. He introduced an Official Seal for his state documents and letters patent.
3. He introduced his own Sammat or regnal year from the date of his conQ.uest of Sirhind.
4. He totally abolished the Zamindari (Landlord) System of the Mughals which had reduced the cultivators to the position of slaves.

Q. What did Banda Singh Bahadur's Official Seal read ?

Deg o teg o fateh o nusrat bedirang
Yaft az Nanak Guru Gobind Singh

(The Kettle and the Sword, Victory and ready Patronage have been obtained from Guru Nanak - Guru Gobind Singh)

Q. What do Degh, Tegh, and Fateh mean ?

Degh means Kettle (symbol of charity or of the means to feed the poor)
Tegh means Sword (symbol of power to protect the weak and helpless)
Fateh means Victory

Q. What was the green banner raised by the Mullas of Lahore ?

The Mullas raised a green banner, called the Haidri Flag, and proclaimed a crusade (jehad) against the Sikhs.

Q. What was the new war-cry that Banda Singh Bahadur introduced ?

'Fateh Darshan' meaning Victory to the Presence. (It was later rejected by the Khalsa since it came to be used for and to replace the old Sikh Salutation of 'Waheguru Ji Ka Khalsa Waheguru Ji Ki Fateh'.)

Q. Name the Sikh who sacrificed his life when he disguised himself in the garments of Banda Singh Bahadur and seated himself in his place, so that Banda Singh could escape from the fort of Lohgarh and retreat to the hills of Nahan.

Bhai Gulab Singh (on December 10, 1710)

Q. When did Emperor Bahadur Shah die ?

February 18, 1712

Q. Who ascended the throne for just 10 months after the death of Bahadur Shah ?

Jahander Shah

Q. Who defeated Jahander Shah to take over the throne of Delhi ?

Farrukh Siyar

Q. When were the Sikhs forced to evacuate Sadhaura and Lohgarh and take refuge in the Jammu hills ?

October, 1713 A.D.

Q. What was Banda Singh Bahadur's second wife's name ?

Sahib Kaur. (He had by her a son, named Ranjit Singh - not the same as Maharaja Ranjit Singh)

Q. Who was the Governor of Lahore who made the forces of Banda Singh retreat to Gurdas Nangal in April, 1715 A.D. ?

Abd-us-Samad Khan (father of Zakhriya Khan)

Q. What was the Sikh Enclosure at Gurdas Nangal called ?

Fortress (Garhi) of Gurdaspur

Q. After eight long months in the Fortress of Gurdaspur, who had a difference in opinion with Banda Singh ? What was the difference in opinion ? What happened as a result of this difference in opinion ?

Binod Singh had a difference in opinion with Banda Singh. Apparently, he proposed evacuating the enclosure and following their old tactics of cutting through the enemy's lines for a place of safety. Banda Singh was not in favor of it. Binod Singh, as per decision reached by his son Kahan Singh, left the enclosure.

Q. When was the Fortress of Gurdaspur captured by the Mughals ?

December 7, 1715 A.D.

Q. Why were the bodies of Sikhs ripped opened ?

The bodies of Sikhs were ripped opened in search of gold coins supposed to have been swallowed by them.

Q. Where were Banda Singh and his companions taken from Gurdas Nangal ?

They were taken to lahore by Abdus Samad Khan and then despatched to Delhi under the charge of his son, Zakhriya Khan.

Q. What was the name of the Sikh who broke the chains around his hands and feet when Emperor Farrukh Siyar taunted him and his fellow Sikhs ?

Baaj Singh

Q. How many soldiers did Baaj Singh kill after breaking through the chains around his hands and feet ?

He killed seven soldiers

Q. When was Banda Singh Bahadur executed ?

June 9, 1716

Q. Name the son of Banda Singh Bahadur from his first wife. What was his fate ?

Ajai Singh. The executioner hacked the 4 year old child to pieces joint by joint with a long knife, dragged out his Q.uivering heart and thrust it into the mouth of his father, Banda Singh Bahadur.

Q. How was Banda Singh Bahadur executed ?

His eyes were first removed by the point of a butcher's knife. His left foot and then his two hands were severed from the body. His flesh was then torn with red-hot pincers, and finally he was decapitated and hacked to pieces limb by limb.

Q. What is meant by 'Chardi Kala' ?

Exalted Spirit

Q. Who were the Bandeis ?

A division of Sikhs that apotheosized Banda Singh Bahadur and believed that he had inherited the succession of Guruship from Guru Gobind Singh Ji. They claimed that they should have an eQ.ual share in the management of the Gurdwaras and other affairs of the Panth.

Q. What was the group of staunch followers of Guru Gobind Singh Ji called ?

'Tat Khalsa' as distinguished from the followers of other denominations who held that the personal Guruship had not been abolished by Guru Gobind Singh, and that their allegiance was still due to their respective preceptors.

Q. What were 'Gurmatas' ?

In practice, the Sikh congregation (Sangat) would sit together, with the Holy Granth in their midst, and deliberating over Q.uestions of common interest would give their decisions in the form of resolutions, called 'Gurmatas'. All Sikhs were expected to receive them as decisions of the Guru and any attempt made to contravene them was looked upon as an act of sacrilege. Such meetings of the whole people, called the 'Sarbat Khalsa', were to be held twice a year, on the occasion of Diwali (October) and Vaisakhi (April).

Q. Whom did Mata Sundri in Delhi send to Amritsar to resolve the dispute between the Bandeis and Tat Khalsa ?

Bhai Mani Singh and Kirpal Singh. Bhai Mani Singh was appointed Granthi (Head Priest) of Harmandir Sahib (Golden Temple), Amritsar in 1721.

Q. When was Zakhrya Khan appointed as Governor of Lahore ?

Zakhrya Khan, also known as 'Khan Bahadur', was appointed Governor of Lahore in 1726 A.D. when his father, Abdus Samad Khan was transferred to Multan.

Q. How many men did Tara Singh Vaan have with him to face the Mughal army sent by Zakhrya Khan ?

22 men. All got martyred fighting the Mughal army in 1726 A.D.

Q. In what year was the title of 'Nawab' and a 'Jagir' presented to the Sikhs by the Mughal authorities ?

1733 A.D.

Q. What was the name of the Sikh Government Contractor who was entrusted with the task of negotiation of the Nawabship and Jagir by Zakhrya Khan ?

Subeg Singh. He was allowed to sit among the Khalsa assembly at Akal Takht, Amritsar, only after he had gone through the ceremony of exculpation, called 'tankhah', for having been a co-operator with the government.

Q. Who was given the title of Nawab ?

Kapur Singh of Faizullapur

Q. On what conditions did Kapur Singh accept Nawabship, when a Jagir was offered to the Sikhs by the Lahore Governor in an attempt to buy peace with the Sikhs ?

Under the conditions that (1) he should be permitted to continue to serve in Guru-ka-langar and (2) to look after the horses and (3) that five Sikhs should touch with sacred feet the Royal Command, both in order to reject it with contempt and also to sanctify it for acceptance

Q. What were the two divisions of the Dal Khalsa ?

Buddha Dal (the army of the veterans) and Taruna Dal (the army of the young). The Buddha Dal was entrusted with the task of looking after the holy places, preaching the Gurus word and inducting converts into the Khalsa Panth by holding Baptismal ceremonies. The Taruna Dal was the more active division and its function was to fight in times of emergencies.

Q. Who led the Buddha Dal ?

Nawab Kapoor Singh

Q. Who was the head of the Taruna Dal, stationed at Amritsar ?

Charat Singh Sukarchakia

Q. Who supervised both the Budha Dal and Taruna Dal ?

Nawab Kapur Singh

Q. Name the 15 year old boy who was beheaded in 1734 for using disrespectful language for Fatima, the daughter of Prophet Mohammed. Rai

Q. When did Diwan Darbara Singh die ?

July, 1734 A.D.

Q. When was the Jagir presented to the Sikhs confiscated ?

1735 A.D.

Q. When did Bhai Mani Singh apply to the Governor of Lahore for permission to hold the Diwali festival in the temple of Amritsar ? What was the condition of the permission ?

1738 A.D. Bhai Mani Singh was to pay Rs.5000 after the fair, which was to last 10 days.

Q. Why couldn't Bhai Mani Singh pay the amount of Rs.5000 ?

Bhai Mani Singh hoped that he would be able to pay the sum out of the offerings to be made by the Khalsa attending the fair. The Governor, however, tricked him by sending a force under Diwan Lakhpat Rai to Amritsar on the day of the fair and scaring the Sikhs away.

Q. How was Bhai Mani Singh martyred ?

His body was cut to pieces limb by limb.

Q. Which famous Sikh martyr was one of the 52 'Darbari kavis' (poets) of Guru Gobind Singh Ji ?

Bhai Mani Singh Ji

Q. How many immediate family members of Bhai Mani Singh got martyred for Sikh Panth ?

21 (Twenty One) : 11 brothers and 10 sons.

Q. As a result of the renewed persecutions, where did the Sikhs retreat to ?

Most of the Sikhs left the plains and sought shelter in the Shivalik hills, Lakhi Jungle and the sandy deserts of Rajputana.

Q. In what year did the Sikhs attack Nadir Shah on his way back to Persia and relieved him of much of his booty ?

1739 A.D.

Q. What was Nadir Shah's prophecy about Sikhs ?

Nadir Shah told Zakhriya Khan that "The time is not far when these people (Sikhs) would raise their heads and become the rulers of this country."

Q. What were the rewards offered by Zakhrya Khan for the capture and destruction of Sikhs ?

Ten Rupees paid to anyone giving information which lead to the arrest of a Sikh.
Fifty Rupees paid to anyone bringing the head of a Sikh.

Q. What was Massa Ranghar known to have done during the persecution of the Sikhs in Zakhriya Khan's period ?

Brought in cartloads of heads of Sikhs

Q. What did Massa Ranghar do when he was appointed the chief of Amritsar by the Mughal governor ?

He held charge of Golden Temple and banned Sikhs from visiting it. He had turned the holy precincts into a stable and the inmost sanctuary into a nautchhouse where he used to smoke and drink and enjoy dance of public women. He also started abusing Hindus and Sikhs of Amritsar.

Q. Who were the two Sikhs who killed Massa Ranghar ?

Bhai Mehtab Singh and Bhai Sukha Singh

Q. How did they kill Massa Ranghar ?

In August 1740, they reached Amritsar. Disguising themselves as Mohammedans and filling two bags with well rounded brick-bats, they entered the precincts of the temple under the pretext of paying their land-revenue. While Sukha singh watched the entrance, Mehtab Singh fell on the tyrant like lightening and cut off his head.

Q. Where did Mehtab Singh and Sukha Singh take the head of Massa Ranghar ?

Budha Jorh in Deserts of Rajasthan.

Q. How was Mehtab Singh martyred ?

Publicly broken on the wheel.

Q. What was the name of the road that Bhai Bota Singh and Bhai Gurja Singh blocked and charged tolls to travellers using it?

Grand Trunk Road near Sarai Nurdin

Q. What were the tolls charged by Bota Singh and Garja Singh ?

One Anna (6.25 Paise) per cart and one Paisa per donkey-load.

Q. What was the fate of Bota Singh and Garja Singh ?

Since no one reported them to the Mughals and paid their tolls without complaining, Bota Singh himself wrote to the Governor of Lahore announcing himself and the tax he was levying on travellers. Zakhriya Khan sent a detachment of 100 horses to arrest him. Bota Singh and Garja Singh refused to surrender and died fighting.

Q. When did Bhai Taru Singh achieve martyrdom ?

June, 1745 A.D.

Q. Why and how was he martyred ?

He cultivated fields and whatever was produced, he offered to his Sikh brethren in exile. This was considered treason and he was reported by Harbhagat of Jandiala and executed. His hair was scrapped of his scalp.

Q. When did Zakhriya Khan die ?

June, 1745 A.D.

Q. Who was the successor of Zakhriya Khan ?

His son, Yahiya Khan.

Q. Why and how were Subeg Singh and Shahbaz Singh martyred ?

Subeg Singh, who had contracts with government, was martyred under suspicion that he was supplying info to Sikhs. His 15 year old son, Shahbaz Singh was martyred because he refused to convert to Islam under the wishes of this Q.azi at the Mohammedan school he studied at.
Subeg Singh and Shahbaz Singh were put on a wheel with slashing knives arranged around it and turned on it.

Q. What was Diwan Lakhpat Rai's brother's name ?

Jaspat Rai, Faujdar of Eminabad.

Q. When Jaspat Rai attacked the Sikhs visiting Eminabad, who killed him ?

Nirbhau Singh got onto the elephant of Jaspat Rai and cut off his head.

Q. What does 'Ghalughaara' mean in English ?


Q. In what year did the 'Chhota Ghalughaara' (First Holocaust) occur ?


Q. In the 'Chhota Ghalughaara', what were the names of the Nawab and the Hindu Diwaan who led the sudden Mughal attack on the Sikhs as they crossed the Raavi River ?

Yahiya Khaan and Lakhpat Rai (Lakhpat was Hindu Diwaan)

Q. How many Sikhs were killed in the 'Chhota Ghalughaara' ?

At least 7000 were killed and 3000 brought as prisoners to Lahore, where they were beheaded at the 'Nakhas', after being subjected to indignities and torture.

Q. When did Yahiya Khan lose power ?

Yahiya Khan was ousted by his younger brother, Shah Nawaz Khan, the Governor of Multan, in March 1747. Lakhpat Rai was also thrown in prison.

Q. When was Nadir Shah assasinated ?

June 8, 1747 A.D.

Q. Who ascended the throne of Afganistan after the assasination of Nadir Shah ?

Ahmed Shah Durrani (also known as Ahmed Shah Abdali)

Q. Whom did Shah Nawaz Khan invite to invade India ?

Ahmed Shah Durrani, ruler of Kabul.

Q. When did Ahmed Shah Durrani establish his control over Lahore ?

January 12, 1748 A.D.

Q. Who defeated Ahmed Shah Durrani ?

The Mughals defeated Ahmed Shah Durrani in the battle of Manupur, near Sirhind, in the middle of March, 1748.

Q. After his defeat, when Ahmed Shah Durrani left Sirhind, who attacked the Durranis, looting and plundering considerable wealth and horses from the Durranis ?

Sardar Charat Singh Sukarchakia

Q. Who became the new Governor of Lahore and Multan ?

Mir Mannu, on April 11, 1748 A.D.

Q. When was Jassa Singh Ahluwalia born ?

May 3, 1718 A.D.

Q. What was Jassa Singh's father's name ?

Badar Singh

Q. How old was Jassa Singh Ahluwalia when his father died ?

5 years old

Q. Who was entreated to take care of Jassa Singh Ahluwalia when his father died ?

Mata Sundri Ji

Q. How long did Jassa Singh and his mother serve Mata Sundri in Delhi ?

For a period of about 7 years.

Q. Whom did Jassa Singh Ahluwalia's mother leave him with (as his god-father) ?

Sardar Kapur Singh. Jassa Singh became famous as his adopted son.

Q. Who lead the attack on Salabat Khan to liberate Amritsar from under his control in March 1748 ?

Sardar Jassa Singh Ahluwalia. He chopped off the head of Salabat Khan in the battle.

Q. Name the twelve Sikh Misls (regiments).

1. Ahluwalia (led by Sardar Jassa Singh Ahluwalia)
2. Bhangi (led by Sardar Hari Singh Bhangi.) Also called Dhillon Sardars.
3. Dalewalia (led by Gulab Singh Dalewalia)
4. Faizalpuria (led by Nawab Kapoor Singh Virk)
5. Kanaihya (led by Jai Singh Kanaihya)
6. Karor Singhia (led by Karora Singh Dhaliwal)
7. Nakai (led by Hari Singh Nakai)
8. Nishanwala (led by Dasaundha Singh)
9. Ramgarhia (led by Nand Singh Sanghania)
10. Sukerchakia (led by Nodh Singh.) Ranjit Singh's Misl.
11. Shaheed (drew their name from Baba Deep Singh Ji Shaheed)
12. Phulkian (led by Ala Singh)

Q. What were these Misls collectively called ?

Dal Khalsa

Q. Who was the founder of the Dal Khalsa ?

Nawab Kapur Singh

Q. When was Jassa Singh chosen the Supreme Commander of the Dal Khalsa ?

March 29, 1748 A.D.

Q. What is a 'Rauni' ?

Rauni is a thick boundary wall or enclosure. It is not a fortress or a fort, but is a minor shelter.

Q. What was the name of the Rauni built in Amritsar in April, 1748 ?

Ram Rauni, after the name of the fourth Guru, Guru Ramdas. The enclosure was built on a piece of land near Ramsar.

Q. Whom did Nawab Kapur Singh appoint as the new Jathedar of the Khalsa Panth ?

Jassa Singh Ahluwalia in 1753.

Q. Who laid the foundation stone of Harmandar Saheb when it was rebuilt by the Taruna Dal ?

Jassa Singh Ahluwalia

Q. Name the Sikh warrior who was awarded the title Sultan-ul-Q.uam (King of the Khalsa Panth).

Jassa Singh Ahluwalia when he defeated the ruler of Lahore in 1761

Q. When did Jassa Singh Ahluwalia occupy Kapurthala ?

In 1778, Jassa Singh occupied Kapurthala and assumed the title of king. He also issued coins.

Q. What was the inscription on the coins minted by Jassa Singh Ahluwalia in the name of the Gurus ?

Deg o teg o fateh o nusrat bedirang
Yaft az Nanak Guru Gobind Singh

Q. When Adeena Beg failed in his negotiations with Jassa Singh Ahluwalia, who refused to accept a share in political power or to have an independent state, whom did he manage to net in to serve under him ?

Jassa Singh Ramgharia, his 3 brothers and some associates.

Q. When was Ram Rauni seized and for how long ?

The Ram Rauni was seized in October, 1748 by Adeena Beg and Jassa Singh Ramgharia and the seize went on for 3 months from October-December, 1748.

Q. What did Jassa Singh Ramgharia decide to do ?

He decided to desert the royal army and join his brethren Singhs.

Q. When did Ahmed Shah Durrani (Abdali) invade India for the second time ?

December, 1748 A.D., nine months after his first invasion in March, 1748.

Q. Who made an offering of Rs.11000 for the service of the holy tank at Harmandir Saheb ?

Diwan Koura Mal made this offering. The holy tank which had been filled up by the orders of Lakhpat Rai in Yahiya Khan's time, was dug up and cleaned.

Q. When did Ahmed Shah Durrani (Abdali) invade India for the third time ?

January, 1752 A.D.

Q. When was Diwan Koura Mal killed ?

March 1752 A.D. He was killed by a shot fired by an agent of Adeena Beg during the defeat of Mir Mannu at the hands of the Durranis.

Q. When was the persecution of Sikhs by Mir Mannu renewed ?

March 1752 A.D.

Q. How did Mir Mannu treat Sikh women ?

He tortured them in order to force them to abandon their religion. He ordered the children and babies of imprisoned Sikh women to be speared alive, or cut up into pieces and made into necklaces to be put around the mother's neck.

Q. How many years did this slaughter of Sikh children go on for ?

Four years

Q. During the persecution of Sikhs by Mir Mannu what price was paid for the severed head of a Sikh ?

Rs. 80 (eQ.uivalent to one year's pay)

Q. During the persecution of Sikhs by Mir Mannu what happened if a person lost a horse in fighting a Sikh ?

The government replaced it with another horse.

Q. When did Nawab Kapur Singh die ?

October 7, 1753 A.D.

Q. When did Mir Mannu finally die ?

November 2, 1753 A.D.

Q. When was Sardar Jassa Singh Ahluwalia formally appointed as the political and religious leader of the Khalsa Panth in place of Nawab Kapur Singh ?

April 10, 1756 A.D.

Q. When did Ahmed Shah Durrani (Abdali) invade India for the fourth time ?

January 28, 1757 A.D.

Q. When did Adeena Beg die ?

September 15, 1758 A.D.

Q. When did Ahmed Shah Durrani (Abdali) invade India for the fifth time ?

October 25, 1759 A.D.

Q. When was the historic battle of Panipat fought ?

January 14, 1761 A.D.

Q. Why was Ala Singh condemned and fined by the Dal Khalsa ?

For his act of submission to the foreigner - in March 1761, Ala Singh was confirmed as a ruler independent of Sirhind in return for a tribute of five lakhs annually.

Q. How many Hindu women were released and restored to their families when the Sikhs attacked the Durrani forces returning from Delhi ?

About 2200 Hindu women.

Q. When did Ahmed Shah Durrani (Abdali) invade India for the sixth time ?

February 3, 1762 A.D.

Q. On what date did the Wada Ghalughaara (Greater Holocaust) occur ?

February 5, 1762

Q. In the Wada Ghalughaaraa, out of the 30,000 Sikhs, how many were massacred by the Mughal forces ?

10,000 (mainly women and children)

Q. When did Ahmed Shah Durrani blow up Harmandir Sahib with gunpowder ?

April 10, 1762 A.D. The tank after being desecrated with the blood of cows was filled with refuse and debris. The 'Bunghas' (rest-houses) meant for pilgrims were destroyed.

Q. How did he get wounded ?

As the buildings were being blown up, a flying brick-bat struck him on his nose and inflicted a wound from which he never recovered.

Q. Who was Baba Deep Singh ?

Baba Deep Singh was incharge of the Gurdwara at Talwandi Sabo, called Damdama Saheb. He had received baptism from the hands of Guru Gobind Singh Ji himself. He was one of the most scholarly Sikhs of his time and had helped the tenth Guru, along with Bhai Mani Singh, in preparing the final version of the Adi Granth.
On hearing about the desecration of Harmandir Saheb (Golden Temple) by Durrani, he started at once to avenge the insult. In the battle of Goharval, he received a mortal wound, but supporting his wounded head, he went on fighting untill he fell dead in the precincts of Harmandir Saheb.

Q. Why did Hari Singh Bhangi lead an expedition against Kasur ?

To free the wife of a brahmin of Kasur on april 10, 1763.

Q. Who got the Gurdwara 'Fatehgarh Saheb' built at the place where the infant sons Guru Gobind Singh Ji were bricked alive ?

Jassa Singh Ahluwalia in 1764.

Q. When did Ahmed Shah Durrani (Abdali) invade India for the seventh time ?

October, 1764 A.D.

Q. When did Ahmed Shah Durrani (Abdali) invade India for the eighth and last time ?

November, 1765 A.D.

Q. What caused Ahmad Shah's death in June 1773 ?

The brick-bat that hit his nose during his desecration of Harmandar Saheb made a wound that turned cancerous and eventually caused his death

Q. When did Jassa Singh Ahluwalia pass away ?

October 20, 1783 A.D.

Q. What city did Sardar Baghel Singh occupy in the year 1790 ?


Q. Who did Sardar Baghel Singh's forces defeat in order to capture Delhi ?

Shah Alam II

Q. How large a force did Sardar Baghel Singh leave at Delhi ?

30,000 men

Q. What is the place in Delhi known as, where Sardar Baghel Singh stationed 30,000 of his troops ?

Tees Hazari (The Place of 30,000)

Q. When and where was Maharaja Ranjit Singh born ?

Nov. 13, 1780 at Gujranwala

Q. What was Maharaja Ranjit Singh's father's name ?

Mahan Singh (son of Sardar Charat Singh)

Q. What was Maharaja Ranjit Singh's mother's name ?

Raj Kaur

Q. What was Maharaja Ranjit Singh's mother-in-law's name who played an important part in his life ?

Sardarni Sada Kaur, wife of Jai Singh, the Kanhaiya leader. (She is believed to be the ladder by which Ranjit Singh reached the climax of his power)

Q. Who was the first wife of Maharaja Ranjit Singh ?

Mehtab Kaur, daughter of Sardarni Sada Kaur.

Q. What was the name of the wife of Maharaja Ranjit Singh who gave birth to Kharak Singh in 1802 ?

Rani Raj Kaur, daughter of Nakai Sardar Khazan Singh

Q. Name the sons of Ranjit Singh.

Sher Singh and Tara Singh (born of Mehtab Kaur), Dilip Singh (born of Jind Kaur), and Kharak Singh (born of Rani Raj Kaur).

Q. Who was entitled 'Sher-e-Punjab' (Lion of Punjab) ?

Maharaja Ranjit Singh

Q. For how many years did Maharaja Ranjit Singh rule for ?

40 Years (1799-1839)

Q. What diamond did Maharaja Ranjit Singh wear on his arm ?

Kohinoor diamond

Q. Who presented the Kohinoor diamond to Maharaja Ranjit Singh ?

The wife of Shah Shuja, the former king of Kabul, whom Maharaja Ranjit Singh released from his opponents in Kashmir.

Q. Where was the first great victory of Maharaja Ranjit Singh against the Afghans ?


Q. At Multaan, what famous gun was used by the troops of Maharaja Ranjit Singh ?

Jamjama Top (gun)

Q. When did Maharaja Ranjit Singh occupy throne in Lahore ?

July 7, 1799 A.D.

Q. When did Maharaja Ranjit Singh annex Amritsar ?

In 1802 A.D.

Q. When did Maharaja Ranjit Singh annex Multan, Kashmir, Peshawar, and Bannu ?

He annexed Multan in 1818 A.D., Kashmir in 1819 A.D., and Peshawar and Bannu in 1823 A.D.

Q. In which year did the enthroning of Ranjit Singh as the Maharaja of Punjab take place ?

Baisakhi day of 1801 A.D.

Q. What was the name of the commemorative coin issued on this auspicious occasion ?

Nanakshahi Rupee

Q. How long did the Sarkar Khalsa rule Punjab for ?

50 years (1799-1849 A.D.)

Q. Why was Sardar Hari Singh Nalwa given the last name "Nalwa" by Maharaja Ranjit Singh ?

Because he slayed a lion (tiger) with a sword while on a hunting expedition with Maharaja Ranjit Singh, thus saving both his life and the Maharaja's

Q. What does "Haria Raghle" mean ?

Hari Singh has come

Q. Which famous Gurdwara did Sardar Hari Singh Nalwa build ?

Gurdwara Panja Saheb

Q. What fortress of great military importance did Hari Singh Nalwa capture ?

Fortress at Jamrud

Q. What is the literal meaning of the word 'Nihang' ?

'Nihang' is a persian word which means 'crocodile'.

Q. Who caused the Ghazis to say, "Toba Toba, Khuda Khud, Khalsa Shud!" ?

Akali Phula Singh

Q. In which year was Akali Phula Singh made Jathedar of Akal Takht ?


Q. As Jathedar of Akal Takht, what did Akali Phula Singh do to Maharaja Ranjit Singh ?

When Ranjit Singh married a Muslim woman, named Moran of Lahore, Akali Phula Singh, as the Jathedar of Akal Takth declared that Maharaja Ranjit Singh is not a Sikh anymore and is a 'Tankhaiya' which means out of Sikhism. He ordered the defendant to be at Golden temple before the community. Ranjit Singh came and admitted that he had made a mistake. Akali Phula Singh ordered 50 lashes for Maharaja Ranjit Singh. Ranjit Singh bowed down to receive his punishment. Panj Pyaras were gratified at the submission of the Maharaja and took a lenient view and accepted a fine of Rs. 1,25,000 from the Maharaja.

Q. Across the river Kabul, there is a tomb (Samaadhi) that still stands as a witness to a warrior's undying chivalry. Who was this warrior ?

Akali Phula Singh

Q. When did Maharaja Ranjit Singh die ?

June 27, 1839

Q. When did Maharaja Kharak Singh, successor of Maharaja Ranjit Singh die ?

November 6, 1840 A.D. (His son, Naunihal Singh died on same day too).

Q. Who killed Kharak Singh ?

The Dogras

Q. Who was the successor of Maharaja Kharak Singh ?

Maharaja Sher Singh became successor on January 18, 1841 A.D.

Q. When was Maharaja Sher Singh murdered ?

September, 1843 A.D.

Q. Who was the successor ?

Maharaja Duleep Singh, son of Maharani Jind Kaur.

Q. When did Maharaja Duleep Singh accept the Christian faith ?

In 1853, Maharaja Duleep Singh, the last Sikh ruler of the Punjab, accepted the Christian faith.

Q. Who went to England to meet Maharaja Duleep Singh and was responsible for his public renunciation of Christianity and return to the Sikh faith ?

Sardar Thakur Singh Sandhawalia. He was the chief agent of Maharaja Duleep Singh in India during his struggle against the British Government in the eighteen eighties. It was he who had provided the Maharaja with important documentary evidence in support of the Maharaja's claims to his private ancestral estates in the Punjab and had used his influence to win the sympathies of the Sikhs in his favor.

Q. Whom did Maharaja Duleep Singh nominate as his would-be prime minister ?

Sardar Thakur Singh Sandhawalia.

Q. When and where did Maharaja Duleep Singh die ?

Maharaja Duleep Singh died in Paris on October 22, 1893.

Q. When was the First Anglo-Sikh war fought ?

1845-46 A.D.

Q. When was the Second Anglo-Sikh war fought ?

1848-49 A.D.

Q. When was the Brahmo Samaj established ?

The Brahma Sabha, later known as Brahmo Samaj, was founded by Raja Rammohan Roy in Bengal in 1828.

Q. When was the Arya Samaj established ?

The Arya Samaj was established at Bombay in 1875. The seed was sown by the publication of Swami Dayananda's 'Satyarth Prakash' in Hindi.

Q. Who started the Nirankari Movement ?

Baba Dayal, a contemporary of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, founded the Nirankari Darbar at Rawalpindi in 1851 A.D. (this body later took the form of a sect.)

Q. What does Nirankar mean ?

The Formless One

Q. When was Baba Dayal born ?

Baba Dayal was born at Peshawar in 1783.

Q. How did Baba Dayal get married ?

Baba Dayal got married in March 1808 (Chet) at Bhera to the daughter of Bhai Charan Dass Kapur. It was the month of Chet which, according to Brahamanical cult, is inauspicious and hence no Pandit would agree to perform the ceremony. Baba Dayal hit upon a new idea of a new and revolutionary type of marriage. Shabads and Anand Sahib was recited and Ardas was done for the success of this "Anand Marriage".

Q. When did Baba Dayal die ?

Baba Dayal died on 30th January, 1855.

Q. Who succeeded Baba Dayal ?

Baba Dayal appointed his eldest son, Baba Darbara Singh to succeed him.

Q. What was Baba Darbara Singh's contribution to the reform of the "Anand Marriage" ?

On March 13, 1855, Baba Darbara Singh called a conference of his followers at the Nirankari darbar at Rawalpindi. Here a young couple was united in wedlock by the Anand Marriage by circumambulating the Guru Granth Sahib four times with the tunes of the hymns. Thereafter four 'Lavan' composed by Guru Ram Das Ji and shabads were recited. In history, this may be said to be the first "Anand Marriage".

Q. Who started the Namdhari Movement (also known as Kuka Movement) ?

The founder was Bhai Balak Singh of Hazro but his follower Baba Ram Singh Namdhari gave it a more positive orientation.

Q. Wnen was Baba Ram Singh born ?

Baba Ram Singh was born on February 3, 1816.

Q. How many Kukas (Namdharis) were blown from the guns ?

Sixty-five Kukas were unjustifiably blown from the guns by the British Government in India on January 17-18, 1872, when they decided to march against the butchers of Maler-Kotla.

Q. When and where did Baba Ram Singh die ?

Baba Ram Singh was deported to Rangoon where he died on November 29, 1884.

Q. Who was the originator of Singh Sabha at Amritsar ?

Sardar Thakur Singh Sandhawalia of Raja Sansi was the originator of Singh Sabha at Amritsar in 1873. He was the president of the society and Giani Gian Singh the secretary. (Other prominent Sikhs like Baba Khem Singh Bedi and Kanwar Bikram Singh were involved too, but he was the moving spirit of the body.)

Q. What were the main objectives of the Singh Sabha ?

The Singh Sabha mainly undertook to:

1. restore Sikhism to it's pristine purity;
2. edit and publish historical and religious books;
3. propagate current knowledge, using Punjabi as the medium, and to start magazines and newspapers in Punjabi;
4. reform and bring back into the Sikh fold the apostates; and
5. interest the highlyplaced Englishmen, in and ensure their association with, the educational program of Sikhs.

Q. When was the second Singh Sabha established ?

The second Singh Sabha was established in Lahore in 1879, with Dewan Boota Singh and Professor Gurmukh Singh as President and Secretary.

Q. What was the Singh Sabha at Amritsar renamed to ?

The Amritsar Singh Sabha became the central organization and other Singh Sabha's became associated with it. It's name was changed to Khalsa Diwan. Baba Khem Singh Bedi became the President and Professor Gurmukh Singh it's chief Secretary.

Q. When was the Khalsa Diwan at Lahore established ?

Professor Gurmukh Singh founded the Khalsa Diwan of Lahore in 1886.

Q. What was the name of the newspaper started by the Khalsa Diwan, Lahore ?

A newspaper called the "Khalsa Akhbar" was started by the Khalsa Diwan, with Bhai Dit Singh as it's editor.

Q. Name some important works of Bhai Kahan Singh of Nabha ?

Bhai Kahan Singh was a great scholar of Sikh literature. Some of his important works are:

1. Ham Hindu Nahin
2. Gurmat Prabhakar
3. Gurmat Sudhakar
4. Encyclopedia of Sikh Literature (this was his magnum opus)

Q. When was the Khalsa College, Amritsar founded ?

The main work of the Khalsa Diwan was the foundation of the Khalsa College, Amritsar, in 1892.

Q. When did Professor Gurmukh Singh die ?

Professor Gurmukh Singh died in 1898.

Q. When was the Chief Khalsa Diwan started ?

The Lahore Khalsa Diwan could not survive the incessant shocks of the deaths of Sir Attar Singh (1896), Professor Gurmukh Singh (1898), and Bhai Dit Singh (1901). It's place was taken by the Chief Khalsa Diwan, Amritsar, that held it's first meeting on October 30, 1902. Bhai Arjun Singh was elected President and Sardar Sunder Singh Majithia, the Secretary.

Q. The inaugural prayer of the Chief Khalsa Diwan was offered by Babu Teja Singh. How did he become a dissenter later on ?

Babu Teja Singh founded a new association called the "Panch Khalsa Diwan", which did much useful work in propagating the mission of Guru Gobind Singh, but in the end floundered pitifully in trying to rearrange the text of Guru Granth Saheb by excluding the compositions of the Bards (Bhattas) and including those of the Tenth Guru.

Q. When was the Anand Marriage Act passed ?

The Anand Marriage Act, legalising the Sikh form of marriage, was passed in 1909.

Q. When was the Kirpan exempted from the Arms Act ?

The Kirpan was exempted from the Arms Act (in India) in 1914.

Q. When did the Sikhs organize a political body of their own ?

The Sikhs organized a political body of their own, called the "Sikh League", and held it's first session at Amritsar, in 1919.

Q. What was the name of this new phase of reform that began among the Sikhs ?

It was called the Akali Movement.

Q. At Guru-ka-Baagh, what was the name of the British official who ordered the merciless beating of non-violent, protesting Akalis ?

S.G.M. Beatty

Q. At Guru-ka-Baagh, how many Akalis ended up in the hospital as a result of the merciless beatings given by the British ?

904 hospitalized

Q. What was the name of the Udaasi Mahant who lodged the complaint that the Akalis were cutting timber from Gurdwara land ?

Sundar Das

Q. When was the beating of Sikh volunteers stopped ?

September 13, 1922.

Q. Why did the Sikh Sangat of Panja Saheb want to stop the train passing through the Panja Saheb railway station ?

To feed the Akali prisoners from Guru-ka-Baagh, who had not been given any food by the British authorities

Q. Who were the two Sikhs who were crushed to death under the train at Panja Saheb ?

Partaap Singh and Karam Singh on October 31, 1922.

Q. In the beginning of the twentieth century, stringent laws were passed in British Columbia, Canada, to discourage the immigration of Indians to Canada. Why were they passed and what were the laws ?

The Canadians felt that the growing number of Indians would take over their jobs in factories, mills, and lumber yards. It was these insecurities which led British Columbia to pass the follwing laws to stop the so-called "Brown Invasion":

1. Indians had to have at least $200 on their person to enter British Columbia (An average Indian earned about 10 cents a day!)
2. They had to come via direct passage from India.

Q. When was the bill passed denying all Indians the right to vote ?

1907 A.D. They were prohibited to run for public office, serve on juries, and were not permitted to become accountants, lawyers, or pharmacists.

Q. When was the Khalsa Diwan Society established in Vancouver ?

In order to fight the unjust immigration laws, the Indians (mostly Sikhs) organized the Khalsa Diwan Society in Vancouver in 1907 with branches in other provinces.

Q. What does 'Ghadr' mean ?


Q. How did the Ghadr Movement get it's name ?

The word 'Ghadr' was the name given to the newspaper edited and published for the Hindustani Association of the Pacific Coast which was founded at Portland, USA, in 1912. The movement this Association gave rise to for revolutionary activities in India also came to be known as the 'Ghadr Movement'.

Q. What was the 'Komagata Maru' ?

The Komagata Maru was a Japanese steamliner chartered by an affluent businessman, Gurdit Singh, to bring Indian immigrants to Canada in 1914. The ship's route departed from Hong Kong, stopped in Japan and then headed to Canada. It's passengers included 376 Indians, all Punjabis, among whom 340 were Sikhs. The ship was eventually turned back at Vancouver where landing was refused, and terminated eventually at Calcutta.

Q. When did Komagata Maru reach Vancouver ?

The Komagata Maru reached Vancouver on May 23, 1914. After two months of a heated legal battle, the ship was forced to leave Vancouver on July 23, 1914. Only 24 passengers were given permission to legally stay in Canada.

Q. Where was the Komagata Maru redirected to when it approached Calcutta ?

When the Komagata Maru approached Calcutta on September 26, 1914, the ship was redirected by European gunboats to a place called Budge Budge, about 17 miles from Calcutta.

Q. How many Indians were killed by the firing of the British troops in the Budge Budge riot ?

Twenty-nine fell victim to the bullets of the British officials and 20 died.

Q. When did the massacre at Jallianwaala Baagh occur ?

April 13, 1919 A.D.

Q. Who ordered his troops to fire on the unarmed men, women and children assembled at Jallianwaala Baagh ?

General Dyer

Q. How many people were massacred at Jallianwaala Baagh ?

309 Sikhs killed at Jallianwaala Baagh

Q. Why did Udham Singh assassinate Sir Michael O'Dwyer ?

Sir Michael O'Dwyer used to be the Lt. Governor of Punjab who had approved General Dyer's actions at Jallianwaala Baagh

Q. The massacre at Jallianwaala occurred as a result of a violation of a set of laws passed by the British Government in India. What was the set of laws called and why were they passed ?

The Rowlatt Act - intended to combat revolutionary struggle for freedom

Q. What was the original Shiromani Gurdwara Prabhandak Committee (S.G.P.C.) and when did it originate ?

The Shiromani Gurdwara Prabhandak Committee was a statutory body comprising elected representatives of the Sikhs concerned primarily with the management of sacred Sikh Shrines under it's control within the terretorial limits of Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, and the Union Territory of Chandigarh. It originated with the Gurdwara Reform or Akali Movement of the early 1920's.

Q. When was the inaugural meeting of S.G.P.C. held ?

At the Akal Takht on December 20, 1920.

Q. Who was elected as the first president of S.G.P.C. ?

Sardar Sundar Singh Majithia

Q. Who was elected the new president of the S.G.P.C. in 1921 ?

Baba Kharak Singh

Q. When the Golden Temple, the Akal Takht and the adjoining Gurdwaras in Amritsar had passed into the control of the Akalis in October 1920, who was the government-appointed Manager of the Golden Temple ?

Sardar Sunder Singh Ramgarhia

Q. When was Gurdwara Tarn Taran freed from the control of the priests ?

January 26, 1921.

Q. Who were the first martyrs of the Gurdwara Reform Movement ?

Bhai Hazara Singh and Bhai Hukum Singh, who achieved martyrdom at Gurdwara Tarn Taran.

Q. What was the name of the Mahant who controlled Gurdwara Nanakana Sahib ?

Mahant Narain Dass.

Q. When was Gurdwara Nankana Sahib freed from the control of Mahant Narain Dass ?

February 21, 1921.

Q. Who had the possesion of the keys to the Toshakhana ?

The government-appointed Manager of the Golden Temple, Sardar Sunder Singh Ramgarhia.

Q. In the "Keys Affair", on what date were the keys returned to the S.G.P.C. ?

January 19, 1922

Q. Who described the return of the keys to the Golden Temple treasury to Baba Kharak Singh as the "first decisive battle won" ?

M.K. Gandhi

Q. What are the most important works of Bhai Vir Singh Ji ?

1. Guru Nanak Chamatkar
2. Kalgidhar Chamatkar
3. Baba Nodh Singh
4. Merey Saeeyan Jeeo

Q. What title was Bhai Vir Singh Ji given by the Government of India ?

Padam Shiri

Q. Bhai Vir Singh Ji was a reputed novelist too. Name some of his important works.

1. Sundri
2. Bijay Singh
3. Satwant Kaur

Q. In which year did the Shiromani Gurdwara Prabhandak Committee (S.G.P.C.) accorded their acceptance of the present form of the Sikh Rehat Maryada (Sikh Code of Conduct) ?

By their resolution No. 14 of 12th October, 1936. (The S.G.P.C.'s Advisory Committee on Religious Matters again considered the draft in its meeting on 7th January, 1945 and made recommendations for certain additions to and deletions from it.)

Q. What are the contents of 'Dasham Granth' ?

1. Jaap Saheb
2. Bichitra Natak
3. Akal Ustat (includes the 10 sawaye of the daily Sikh prayer)
4. Shabad Hazare
5. Sawaya Tatees
6. Zaffarnama
7. Chandi Charitra
8. Gian Parbodh
9. Chaubis Avtaar
10. Shastra Nam mala
11. Hikayat
12. Charitropakhyan

Q. What is the Sikh Calendar called ?

Nanakshahi Calendar

Q. Is the Nanakshahi Calendar a Solar or Lunar calendar ?

Solar Calendar

Q. Which is the year one of the Nanakshahi Calendar ?

The year one of the Nanakshai Calendar is the year of Guru Nanak Dev Ji's birth (1469 CE)

Q. What is the year length of the Nanakshahi Calendar ?

The year length of the Nanakshahi Calendar is the same as the Western calendar and is 365 days 5 hours 48 minutes 45 seconds.

Q. What is the length of the months in the Nanakshahi Calendar ?

The Nanakshahi Calendar contains 5 months of 31 days followed by 7 months of 30 days. During the leap year (every 4 years), the last month (Phagun) has an extra day.

Q. Name the months of the Nanakshai Calendar in order.

1. Chet (starts-14 March)
2. Vaisakhi (starts 14 April)
3. Jeth (starts-15 May)
4. Haarh (starts-15 June)
5. Saavan (starts-16 July)
6. Bhaadon (starts-16 August)
7. Assu (starts-15 September)
8. Kattak (starts-15 October)
9. Maggar (starts-14 November)
10. Poh (starts-14 December)
11. Maagh (starts-13 January)
12. Phagun (starts-12 February)

Q. Who developed the Nanakshahi Calendar ?

The Nanakshahi Calendar was developed by a Canadian Sikh, Pal Singh Purewal, a retired computer engineer.

Q. List the days in the Nanakshahi Calendar in order.

1. Aetvaar (Sunday)
2. Somvaar (Monday)
3. Mangalvaar (Tuesday)
4. Budhvaar (Wednesday)
5. Veervaar (Thursday)
6. Shukarvaar (Friday)
7. Chanicharvaar (Saturday)

Q. When was the Nanakshahi Calendar implemented by the Shiromani Gurdwara Prabandhak Committee ?

The Nanakshahi Calendar was implemented by the Shiromani Gurdwara Prabandhak Committee (SGPC) on April 14, 2003.

Q. Which year of the Nanakshahi Calendar corresponds with the years 2008-2009 ?

Samat 540 of the Nanakshahi Calendar.